All plants are made up of cells. The cell plays a fundamental role in the understanding of botany. It also helps in the understanding of chemistry. Cell is the simplest organization in the hierarchy of biological organization. It exhibits the properties of life. Some organisms are single celled. Most of the organisms are multicellular. The body of a plant is composed of many kinds of specialized cells. There is division of labour among the cells. Different cells perform different functions. It produces higher level of organization. These organizations are tissue and organ level. The Ultrastructure of plant cells is studied by cell fractionation technique and electron microscope. Cell fractionation is a special technique in which cells are homogenized in ultra centrifuge. The plants cells are placed in acidic solution for removing cell wall before centrifugation. Cell fractionation technique breaks the plasma membrane and separate different organelles in different layers. Each layer is removed and studied under electron microscope. Plant cell has four major components:

  1. Cell wall
  2. Cell membrane
  3. Cytoplasm
  4. Nucleus






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