Th destructive chemical reactions (catabolism) of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle pe orm many functions. They constitute a metabolic pool. This pool supplies materials for synthesis (anabolism) of many important cellular components. Therefore, the balance between catabolism and anabolism is maintained. It maintains homeostasis in the cell and in the whole animal.

For example, glycolysis and the Krebs cycles are open systems. An open system has a two-way flow of materials into and out of it:

(a)         Various compounds enter the pathways • at different points Thus carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be oxidized.

(b)          At the same time, some of the intermediates of these pathways can be withdrawn. They are used in synthesis reactions.

Thus, the products of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle form a metabolic pool. The materials can be added or withdrawn from this pool according to the need of the body.



Electron transport chain • The     collection    of   molecules     embedded     in   the     inner



membrane     of    the     mitochondrion      is    called      electron
transport chain

Krebs cycle Krebs cycle is a series of reactions in which the pyruvate from glycolysis is oxidized to CO2.
Thermodynamics The study of energy is called thermodynamics.
kilocalorie A kilocalorie (Kcal) is the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of water 1° C and is equal to 1,000 calories.


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