1. Write note on evolution of reptiles.
  2. Give the Cladistic and evolutionary interpretation of reptiles.
  3. Write note on turtles.
  4. Give shell in turtles.
  5. Why are turtle getting extinct?
  6. Write note tuatara. What is its evolutionary significance?
  7. Write note on lizards.
  8. Write note on Gecko, Iguanas and chameleons.
  9. Write note on snakes.
  10. Discuss worm lizard.
  11. Write note on crocodiles.
  12. Discuss adaptations in Chuckwallas.
  13. Write note on skin.
  14. Discuss ecdysis in reptiles.
  15. Discuss adaptations in the skeleton of reptiles.
  16. Describe locomotion in reptiles.
  17. How can snake swallow larger prey than its body size?
  18. Describe biting apparatus and mechankm in snakes.
  19. Discuss circulatory system in reptiles.
  20. What is the advantage of mixing of blood in reptiles?
  21. Give mechanism of gas exchange in reptiles.
  22. Discuss thermoregulation in reptiles.
  23. Write note torpor and hibernacula.
  24. Discuss eye of reptiles.
  25. Write not on olfaction in reptiles.
  26. W hat are the functions of Jacobson’s organ and pit organs?
  27. Discuss excretion in reptiles
  28. Give osmoregulation in reptiles
  29. Write note on fertilization In reptiles.
  30. Give different types of reproductive behaviors in reptiles.
  31. Discuss parental care in reptiles.
  32. Discuss evolution of Archosauria and synapsid lineages.


1. What is the function of yolk?

Ans:  Birds and reptiles have hard or leathery shell. This shell protects the developing embryo.

2. What is the function of embryo?

Ans:   The albumen cushions the embry0. It also provides moisture and nutrients to the embryo.

3. Name the sub classes of classes of class reptilian
Ans: Anapsida, Synapsids, Lepidosauria and Archosauria

4. What is the significance of therapsids?

Ans: A group of synapsids called therapsids, give rise to the mammals

5. What is carapace?

Ans: The dorsal portion of the shell is the carapace. Carapace is formed by the fusion of vertebrae, ribs and hones in the dermis of the skin.

6 . What is plastron?

Ans: The ventral portion of the shell is the plastron. It is formed from bones of the  pectoral girdle and dermal bone.

7. Why do the turtles have high mortality rate? 

Ans: Turtles have slow rates  of  growth. Therefore, they have long juvenile periods.  Therelore, they haw high mortality rates.

8. W hat is secondary palate?

Ans: The secondary palate evolved in the archosaurs. Secondary palate of

bone. It separates the nasal and mouth passageways.

9. What is ecdysis in reptiles?

Ans: The process in which reptiles periodically shed their miter epidermal layers or the skin is called ecdvsis.

10. Name the first two cervical vertebrae.

Ans:    Atlas and axis.

11. How does cobra flare itself in aggressive display?

Ans: The cervical vertebrae of cobras arc attached with some special ribs. Cobra flares these ribs in aggressive display.

12. What is autotomy?

Ans:   The loss of tail is called autotomy.



13. What is significance of autotomy for lizards?

Ans:  Autotomy is an adaptation that allows a lizard to escape from a predator’s grasp. Sometimes, the predator runs away from lizard after seeing its broken moving tail.  The lizard later regenerates the lost portion of the tail.

14. What is bipedalism?

Ans: The walking on the hind limbs is called bipedalism.

15. What are fangs?

Ans: Fangs are modified teeth in the snake for biting and transferring venom into the body or victim.

16. What are rear fanged snakes?

Ans: Rear-fanged snakes have groove in rear teeth. Venom is passed through grooves and injected into the prey during swallowing.

17. What is neurotoxin?

Ans:  Neurotoxin attacks on nerve centers. It causes respiratory paralysis. The venom of coral snakes, cobras and sea snakes are neurotoxins.

18. What are Hemotoxins?

Ans:  Hemotoxins break blood cells. It attacks blood vessel linings. The venoms of  vipers are primarily hemotoxins.

19. What has happened with sinus venosus in reptiles?

Ans: The sinus venosus is absent in reptiles except in turtles. It has become a patch of cells and act as a pacemaker.

20. What are ectotherms?

Ans: The animals which use external hem sources or thermoregulation are called ectotherms. Most reptiles are ectotherms.

21. What are endotherms?

Ans: The animals which generate internal heat during metabolism are called endotherms. Some reptiles like monitor lizards and brooding Indian pythons are endotherms.

22. What are hibernacula?
Ans:  The solitary reptiles migrate to a common site and spread winter there. These animals clumped together. Heat loss from these groups is called hibernacula.

23. What is a spectacle?

Ans: In snakes and some lizards, the upper and lower eyelids fuse in the embryo. It forms a protective window of clear skin called the spectacle.

24. What is adaptation in the eye of Horned lizard for protection form predator?

Ans: In snakes and some  lizards rupture this sinus and blood come out form it. It is a defensive act to confuse the predators.

25. What are Jacobson’s organs?

Ans: Many reptiles possess blind-ending pouches. This pouch opens into the mouth cavity through the secondary palate. These pouches are called Jacobson’s ( vomeronasal ) organs. These are used for taste.

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