1. Why are birds called as “glorified reptiles”? Or Discuss phylogenetic relationships of birds.
  2. Discuss evolution of flight.
  3. What is the evolutionary significance of Archaeopteryx?
  4. Write note on diversity of modern birds.
  5. What is the significance of feathers in the birds?
  6. Give types of feathers.
  7. How do birds maintain their feathers?
  8. Discuss colour pattern in birds.
  9. What is molting? Give its different types in different birds.
  10. Discuss different adaptations in the skeleton of birds.
  11. Give adaptation in the vertebrae for flight.
  12. Write note on flight muscles in birds.
  13. Write not on flight in birds.
  14. Give mechanism of flight in birds.
  15. Give different types of flights in birds.
  16. Describe adaptations in the digestive system of birds.
  17. What is pigeon’s milk?
  18. Give different feeding habits in birds.
  19. Give blood circulation in birds.
  20. Describe respiratory organs in birds.
  21. Give mechanism of respiration in birds.
  22. Compare the respiration of birds with other tetrapods.
  23. Discuss thermoregulation in birds
  24. Write note on brain in birds.
  25. Discuss eye in birds.
  26. Discuss excretion and osmoregulation in birds.Give male and female reproductive organs in birds.Discuss different reproductive behaviors in birds.Give nesting activities in birds.Write note on migration in birds.How do birds navigate?


1. Why are birds called as “glorified reptiles”?

Ans: There are close similarities between birds and reptiles. That is why, birds are often called as “glorified reptiles.

2. Why are pterosaurs and pterodactyls not regarded as ancestor of reptiles?

Ans: These reptiles lost the clavicles long before the appearance of birds. They did not have feather wings. Therefore, they are not regarded as ancestor or reptiles.

3. Why do cladistics interpret the bird as modern dinosaurs?

Ans: Thus modern birds were derived from the Saurischian lineage of dinosaurs. This lineage also includes bipedal carnivorous dinosaurs like Trvannosaurus. According to cladistic interpretations the birds are modern dinosaurs.

4. What is the significance of Archaeopteryx?

Ans: Archaeopteryx has both avian and reptilian characteristics. Therefore, it is regarded as connecting link between birds and reptiles.

5. Give reptilian character of Archaeopteryx.

Ans: It had a long reptilian tail. It has clawed fingers.

6. Name the fossils which support the hypothesis of flight.

Ans: Sinornis and Eoalulavis.

7. What is plumage?

Ans: The covering of feathers on a bird is called the plumage.

8. What are contour feathers?

Ans: These are most obvious feathers. They cover the body, wings and tail.

9. What are down feathers and Filoplumes?

Ans: Down feathers are present on the skin. They are insulating feathers. They are also called pinfeathers. They have sensory functions.

10. What is preening?

Ans: Preening keeps the feathers smooth, clean and in place. Preening is done by rubbing the bill over the leathers.

11. What is Anting?

Ans: It is a maintenance behavior in some birds. It is more common in many songbirds. In this case, the bird picks up ants in the bill and rubs them over the feathers. The ants secrete formic acid. This forming acid is toxic to feather mites.

12. What are Structural colours?

Ans: Other colors are also present in birds. These are called structural colors These colours are appeared due to irregularities on the surface of the feather.

13. What is Iridescence?

Ans: The flattening and twisting of barbules causes the diffraction of light. It causes iridescence. The interchanging colors on the neck and back of hummingbirds and grackles are examples of iridescence.

14. What is molting?

Ans: The process of shedding and replacement of feathers is called molting.

15. Name different types of molts in birds.

Ans: Juvenile molt, Post Juvenile. Prenuptial molt and Postnuptial molt.

16. What are uncinate processes?

Ans: These processes overlap the next rib and strengthen the ribs. Uncinate processes are also present on the ribs of most reptiles.

17. What is pygostyle?

Ans: The posterior caudal vertebrae are fused to form a pygostyle. Pygostyle supports the tail feathers.

18. What is keel?

Ans: The sternum of most birds develops a large median keel. Keel is used for the attachment of flight muscles.

19. What is perching?

Ans: This an automatic grasp. It can perch extend during sleeping.

20. What are flight muscles?



Ans: The largest and strongest muscles the birds are the flight muscles. They are attached to the sternum and clavicles. Their other end is attached to the humerus.

21. Differentiate between power and recovery strokes.

Ans: The down stroke is called power stroke. The upstroke is called recovery stroke.

22. What is gliding flight?

Ans: The wings remain stationary during gliding flight and the bird loses altitude. Water fowl use gliding flight for landing.

23. What is soaring flight?

Ans: Soaring flight allows some birds to remain in air without spending much energy. Wings remain stationary during soaring.

24. What is hovering flight?

Ans: Hummingbirds perform hovering flight. They hover in still air by farming their wings beck and forth (50 to 80 beats per second). They remain suspended in front of a flower or feeding station during hovering.

25. What is pigeon’s milk?

Ans: The crop of pigeons produces pigeon’s milk. Pigeon’s milk is a cheesy secretion. It is formed by the proliferation and sloughing of the lining of the crop. Young pigeons feed on pigeon’s milk till they are able to eat grain.

26. What are Proventriculus and Ventriculus?

Ans: It secretes gastric juices. Gastric juice initiates digestion. It has muscular walls to crush the seeds and other hard materials. Birds swallow sand and stone in gizzard. These stones help in digestion.

27. Birds have high metabolic rate. It needs a large amount of oxygen. What adaptations are present in the circulatory system of bird for this supplying this large amount of oxygen?

Ans: They have a large heart. They have rapid heart rate. They have complete separation of highly oxygenated blood from less oxygenated blood.

28. What are parabronchi?

Ans: The Lungs of birds are made of small air tubes called parabronchi. Parabronchi divides to form air capillaries.

29. What is the body temperature in birds?

Ans: Birds maintain body temperatures between 38 and 450 C.

31. What is counter current heat exchange?

Ans: There is a countercurrent heat exchange between the warm blood flowing to the legs and feet. and the cooler blood Bowing to the body from the legs arid feet. It prevents excessive heat loss at the feet. 1. bus heat is returned to the body.

32. What is Search fovea?

Ans: One fovea is called search fovea. It is present at the center of the retina. It Hvcs the bird a wide angle of monocular vision.

32. What is pursuit fovea?

• s: The other fovea is present, at the posterior margin of the retina. It is called pursuit fovea. It functions with the posterior fovea of the other eye and form binocular vision.

33. What are auriculars?

Ans: Most birds have well-developed hearing. Loose, delicate feathers called auriculars cover the external ear opening.

34. What is monogamy?

Ans: In this case. single male pairs with a single female during the breeding season.

35. In this casemiles mate with more than one female. The females care for the eggs and chicks.

36. What is polyandry?

Ans: In this case, the females mate with more than one male.

37. What is a clutch?

Ans: The group of eggs laid and chicks produced by a female is called a clutch.

38. What are altricial Noting?

Ans: Some birds are helpless at hatching. They depend on their parents for hatching. The young birds are entirely dependent on their parents are called altricial.

39. What are Precocial young?

Ans: They are alert and lively at hatching. They are covered with down feathers.

40. Define migration.

Ans: The periodic round trips of birds between breeding and non-breeding areas are called migration.

41. What is sun compass?

Ans: The lenses of birds are transparent for ultraviolent light. Their photoreceptors respond to ubravioled radiation. Thus, they orient according to position of sun. This orientation is called a sun compass.

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