1. Describe phylogenetic relationships of amphibians.
  2. How did amnoites and anamniotes lineages evolve?
  3. Write note on Salamanders.
  4. Write a brief not of  ceacilians.
  5. Write note on Anurans.
  6. Write a brief not on adaptation in skin of amphibians.
  7. Discuss evolutions of axial skeleton in amphibians.
  8. Write not on appendicular skeleton of amphibians.
  9. Give different types of mode of locomotion in amphibians.
  10. Describe nutrition and digestive system of amphibians.
  11. Give circulatory system of amphibians.
  12. Give different types of respirations in amphibians.
  13. Write different temperature regulatory strategies in amphibians.
  14. Write brief not on different types of sense organs in amphibians.
  15. Write not on structure of eye of amphibians.
  16. Discuss ear of amphibians.
  17. Give excretion in amphibians.
  18. Give different methods of osmoregulation in amphibians.
  19. Write note on reproduction in amphibians.
  20. Give different types of breeding behaviours in amphibians.
  21. Write note on different types vocalization call in anurans.
  22. Discuss parental care in amphibians.
  23. Why are species of amphibians reducing?
  24. Discuss evolution of three orders of amphibians.


1. What are tetrapods?

Ans: The term tetrapod is a non-taxonomic. It is used for all vertebrates other than fishes. Most tetrapods are adapted on land.

2. What is Amniotic lineage?

Ans: One lineage a amphibian became  extinct in the late Carbiniferous period. An amniotic egg evolved in this group. It resisted dryness. This lineage is called the amniotic lineage. This lineage is called the amniotic lineage. This lineage formed reptiles, birds and mammals.

3. What is nonamniotic lineage?

Ans: A second lineage flourished in the Jurassic period. Most of this lineage has become extinct. But some of them gave rise to the three orders of living amphibians. This lineage is called the nonamniotic lineage.

4. Name the order of  amphibians.

Ans: Caudata, Gymnophiona and Anura

5. What is paedomorphosis?

Ans: A phenomenon in which land become sexually while still showing larval characteristics is called paedomorphosis.

6. What are chromatophores?

Ans: Chromatophores are specialized cells in the epidermis and dermis of the skin.They are responsible for skin color and color changes.

7. How do amphibians protect themselves form predators?

Ans: Cryptic coloration (warning color), aposematic coloration (matching with the habitat) and mimiery are common in amphibians.

8. What are zygapophyses?

Ans: Every vertebra has a supportive process called zygapophyses. It prevents the vertebral column from twisting.

9. What is sternum?

Ans: Sternum is present in the anterior ventral trunk region. It supports the forelimbs and protects internal organs. It is reduced or absent in the Anura.

10. Name the three bones of pelvic girdle.

Ans: Ilium. ischium. and pubis.

11. What type of feeding mechanism is present in anurans and salamanders?

Ans: Hip and grab feeding mechanism

12. What is lymphatic heart?

Ans: The amphibians have contractile vessels called lymphatic hearts. These hearts pump fluid through tile lymphatic system.



13. What is cutaneous respiration?

Ans: Gas exchange through the skin N called cutaneous respiration.

14. What is buccopharyngeal respiration?

Ans: Gas exchange can also take place through moist surlitces of the moult and pharynx. It is called buccopharyngeal respiration.

15. What is critical temperature for salamanders and anurans?

Ans: Critical temperature thr salamanders lie bemeen 2 and 27° C and br some anurans is between 3 and 4 I C.

16. What is nictitating membrane?

Ans: The transparent part of eyelid is called the nictitating membrane.

17. What is meant by accommodation of eve?

Ans: The bending (refracting) of light ran s at a focal point on the retina is called focusing or accommodation.

18. What is the function of cones?

Ans: Cones are present in the retina. They detect colours. Thus amphibians can distinguish between some wavelengths of light with the help of cones.

19. What type of vibrations is absorbed of amphibians?

Ans: High- frequency (1, 000 to 5, 000 Hz) Low-Frequency ( 100 to 1, 000 Hz)

20. What are nocturnal amphibians?

Ans: They do not come out in desiccating conditions. Many terrestrial amphibians are nocturnal. The go to high humidity area during day times in burrows.

21. What is amplexus?

Ans: The male is dorsal to the female during breeding. This positioning is called amplexus.

22. Name different types of calls during vocalization in amphibians.

Ans: Advertisement calls. Receptive calls. Release call and Distress calls.

23. What is laryngeal apparatus?

Ans: The sound-production apparatus of frogs consists of the larynx and its vocal cords. It is called laryngeal apparatus.

24. In which species maternal care take place?

Ans: It takes place in species with internal fertilization. e.g. salamanders and caecilians.

25. In which species paternal care take place?

Ans: It takes place in species with external fertilization. e.g. anurans.

26. Define metamorphosis.

Ans:  Metamorphosis is a series ()I’ abrupt structural. physiological, and behavioral changes that transform a larva into an adult.

27. Define Paedomorphosis.

Ans:  A phenomenon in which larva becomes sexually mature while still showing characteristics is called paedomorphosis.

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