1. What is the observation of Miller about Samoan pablo worm?
  2. Give characteristics of phylum Annelida.
  3. Discuss relation ship of Annelida with other phylum.
  4. Write note on segmentation and tagmatization in annelids.
  5. Give origin of coelom and muscles.
  6. Compare the segmentation of annelids and arthropods.
  7. Write note on parapodia and setae.
  8. Give mechanism of locomotion in Polychaetes.
  9. write note on ingestion of food in polychaeta.
  10. How is digestion take place in Polychaetes?
  11. Give respiration and circulation in Polychaetes.
  12. Describe nervous system of Polychaetes.
  13. Discuss different sense organs in Polychaetes.
  14. Write note on protonephridium and metanephridium.
  15. Write note on asexual reproduction in Polychaetes.
  16. How does fertilization and development occur in Polychaetes take place?
  17. Write note on locomotion and burrowing in Oligochaetes.
  18. Give feeding and digestive system of Oligochaetes.
  19. Discuss circulation in Oligochaetes.
  20. Give nervous system and sense organs in Oligochaetes.
  21. Write note on excretion in Oligochaetes.
  22. Discuss methods of copulation in Oligochaetes.
  23. How is cocoon formed in the Oligochaetes?
  24. Give external features of Leeches.
  25. Discuss feeding in leeches.
  26. Write note on nervous system and sense organ in leeches.
  27. Discuss reproduction and development in Leeches.
  28. How did evolution of different classes of annelids take place?


1. What is meant by Schizocoelous origin?

Ans: It suggests that the coelom of the annelids has schizocoelous origin. It means that annelids have evolved from ancient flatworm stock.

2. What is the significance of Lobatcerebrum in the evolution of annelids?

Ans: It shows both annelid and flatworm characteristics. Therefore. it gives support to e enterocoelous origin hypothesis.

3. What is metamerism?

Ans: Segmental arrangement of body parts in an animal is called metamerism.

4. Name the classes of phylum Annelida.

Ans: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Huridinea

5. What are fans in polychaetes?

Ans: The parapodia of segments 14 through 16 are modified into fans. This fan creates filitration currents.

6. Name the ganglia present in Polychaetes.

Ans: Siprapharyngeal   ganglia,    subpharyngealganglia.    Segmental  ganglia, S ibpharyngeal ganglia and Suprapharyngeal ganglia.

7. What are nuchal organs?

Ans:  Nuchal organs are pairs of ciliated sensory pits or slits in the head region. Nerves from the suprapharyngeal ganglia supply nuchal organs. Nuchal organs are chemoreceptors for food detection.

8. Differentiate between protonephridium and metanephridium.

Ans: One bulblike end of the metanephridium is closed. The other end is connected to the outside of the body. A metanephridium consists of an open ciliated funnel called a nephrostome.



9. What are chloragogen?

Ans: Some polychaetes also have chloragogen tissue. They are associated with the digestive tract. This tissue functions in amino acid metabolism in all annelids.

10. How does regeneration protect some polychaetes from predators?

Ans: Some species have breaking points. These breaking points allow the worms to break themselves when a predator captures them. Lost segments are later regenerated.

11. What is Epitoky?

Ans: The formation of a reproductive individual is called Epitoky.

12. What is clitellum?

Ans: A series of special segments arc present at the anterior half of Oligochaeta. These segments swell to form a girdle like structure called the clitellum. Clitellum secretes mucus during copulation. It also forms a cocoon.

13. What are typhlosoles?

Ans: A dorsal fold of the epithelium is present in the intestine. It is called tvphlosole. It increases the surface area of the intestine.

14. What type of hearts is present in oligochaetes?

Ans: Some segmental vessels expand and they are contractile in the earthworm. These are sometimes called “hearts. They transfer the blood from dorsal to ventral blood vessels.

15. What is meant by dermal light sense?

Ans: Photoreceptor cells scattered over the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body. Therefore, they all have a dermal light sense.

16. What is hypodermic impregnation?

Ans: A few leeches transfer sperm by expelling a spermatophore from one leech into the integument of another. It is a form of hypodermic impregnation.

17. What are pigment cups?

Ans: Most leeches have photoreceptor cells in pigment cups. Pigments cups are present along the dorsal surface of the anterior segments.

18. What is Hirudin?

Ans: Salivary glands secrete an anticoagulant called hirudin. Hirudin prevents blood from clotting.

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