1. Give evolution of Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Gastrotricha.
  2. Give general characteristics of phylum Platyhelminthes.
  3. Describe classification of Phylum Platyhelminthes.
  4. Write note on body wall of turbellarians.
  5. Write note on locomotion in turbellarians.
  6. Give digestion and nutrition in turhellarians.
  7. Give respiration and osmoregulation on turbellarians.
  8. Describe excretion in turbellarians.
  9. Differentiate between diffused and central nervous systems.
  10. Write note on sense organs in turbellarians.
  11. Write note on asexual reproduction in turbellarians.
  12. Write note on male and female reproductive organs of turbellarians..
  13. Give development in turbellarians.
  14. Give some characteristics of tape worms.
  15. Discuss body characteristics of true tape worms.
  16. Discuss life cycle of tape worms.
  17. Describe the life cycle of beef tape worm.
  18. Describe the life cycle of broad fish tape worm.
  19. Write note on Phylum Numerate.
  20. Give general characteristics of Phylum Gastrotricha.
  21. Give different views about the evolution of Platyhelminthes.


1. What is parenchyma?

Ans: Parenchyma that fills spaces between other more specialized tissues, organs. and The body wall. Parenchyma is derived from mesoderm.

2. Give functions of parenchyma.

Ans: Parenchyma provide support. nutrient storage, motility, reserves of regenerative !cells, transport of materials, structural interactions with other tissues, modifiable tissue for morphogenesis (forrnation of new structures) and oxygen storage.

3. What is excretory and osmoregulatory structure in platyhelminthes?

Ans. Metanephridia.

4. Name the classes of phylum Platyhelminthes.

Ans: (a) Turbellarian (b) Cestoidae (c) Trematoda (d) Monogenea

5. Why are turbellarian name so?

Ans: Turbellarians are named for the turbulence. The beating of cilia creates this j turbulence in the water.

6. What are rhabdites?



Ans: These are rod like cells. They swell and form a protective mucous sheath around the body. Therefore, they protect the body from predation or desiccation.

7. What is a flame cell?

Ans: The branches of protonephridium end in flame cells. Flame cells have numerous cilia. These cilia project into the lumen of the tubule. A slit like openings is present in the wall of flame cell.

8. What is statocyst?

Ans: A statocyst is present at the anterior end. It functions as a mechanoreceptor. It , detects the position of body with respect to gravity.

9. What is the function of seminal vesicle?

Ans: Seminal vesicle is a sperm storage organ.

10. Name the larva of turbellarians.

Ans: Muller’s larva

11. What are proglottides?

Ans: The proglottids are a long series of repeating units in tape worms.

12. What is cirrus?

Ans: The copulatory organ in tapeworm is cirrus.

13. What is strobila?

Ans: It is the third body region The strobila consists of a series of linearly aminged proglottids.

14. What is ootype?

Ans: The ootype is an expanded region of the oviduct.

15. What are gravid proglottids?

Ans: The posterior proglottids with stored mature egg are called proglottids.

16. Name the larvae or life stage of broad fish tape worm.

Ans: Coracidia, cocercoids and Plerocercoid.

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