1. Discuss evolutionary perspective of protists.
  2. Write note on pellicle and cytoplasm of protozoans.
  3. Give osmoregulation in protozoans.
  4. Write note on ingestion and digestion of food.
  5. Describe respiration and excretion in protozoans.
  6. Discuss reproduction in protozoans.
  7. Discuss symbiotic relations in protozoans.
  8. Write note on Sarcomastigophora.
  9. Give different types of pseudopodia
  10. Write note on shell in Rhizopoda.
  11. Write note on sub phylum Actinopoda
  12. Write note on Foraminiferans.
  13. Give characteristics of phylum Labyrinthomorpha.
  14. Give characteristics of Ciliophora.
  15. Write note on cilia and other related peculiar structures.
  16. Discuss nutrition in paramecium.
  17. Give genetic control and reproduction in Ciliophora.
  18. Write note on symbiotic ciliates.
  19. Is there any scope to change the taxonomic position of protozoans?


1. What is endosymbiont hypothesis?

Ans: This hypothesis explains the mechanism of evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes. According to this hypothesis, the structure like mitochondria. Chloroplast enters into the cells as symbionts.

2. What is pellicle?

Ans: A regular arrangement of microtubules is called the pellicle.

3. Define osmoregulation.

Ans: The maintenance of water and salt balance in the body is called osmoregulation.

4. What are egestion vacuoles? What is their function?

Ans: The vacuoles are called egestion vacuoles after completion of digestion release their contents by exocvtosis.

5. What is symbiosis?

Ans: Symbiosis is an intimate association between two organisms.

6. Define parasitism.



Ans: An association in which one organism lives in or on a second organism, host and causes disease in the host is called parasitism.

7. Differentiate between definitive host and intermediate host:

Ans: The sexual stages of the parasite occur in definitive host. The offspring of sexual stages enter into another host, called an intermediate host.

8. What is commensalism?

Ans: The symbiotic relationship in which one member or the relationship benefits and the second member are neither benefited nor harmed is called commensalisms.

9. Name phylums of protozoa.

Ans: Phylum Sarcomastigophora, Phylum Labyrithomorpha. Phylum Apicomplexa, Phylum Microspora,  Phylum Acetospora, Phylum Myxozoa and Phylum Ciliphora.

10. Give two characteristics of apicomplexans.

Ans: They have apical complex for penetrating host cells. The, have single type of nucleus. They has e no cilia and flagella.

11. What is meant by dimorphic nuclei?

Ans: Ciliophora has two nuclei: A larger macronucleus and one or more smaller micronuclei. This condition is called dimorphic nuclei.

12. What are Trichoeysts? Give their function.

Ans: Trichocysts are sac like pellicular structures. They are arranged perpendicular to the plasma membrane. They are rod like or oval organelles. They are primarily used for protection.



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