1. Write note on taxonomy hierarchy.
  2. Write note on nomenclature.
  3. What is nomenclature? Why was its need felt?
  4. Discuss molecular approach to modern genetics. What is the role of mitochondria in molecular approach?
  5. What is difference between the molecular and traditional approach?
  6. Discuss kingdom classification system.
  7. Describe domain classification system.
  8. What is the role of RNA in the formation of domain system?
  9. Discuss evolution of Eukarya.
  10. Give controversies about domain system.
  11. Write note on monophyletic, polyphyletic and paraphylctic groups.
  12. Write note on evolutionary systematics.
  13. Write note on numerical taxonomy. What is difference between numerical and evolutionary systematic?
  14. What is phylogenetic or cladistic systematics?
  15. What is cladogram? Give cladogram of vertebrates.
  16. Give comparison between cladistics and evolutionary taxonomists.
  17. What are the problems in tree diagram?
  18. Write note on symmetery of animals.
  19. Write note on cytoplasmic organization.
  20. Write note on diploblastic and triploblastic organizations.
  21. Give types of triploblastic organization


1. What is systematics?

Ans: The study of kinds and diversity of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them is called systematics or taxonomy.

2. Differentiate between systematics and Taxonomy.

Ans: The original description of species is called taxonomy. Ihe assignment of species into evolutionary groups is called systematics.

3. What is taxon?

Ans: The group of animal with similar characteristics forms a taxon.

4. Name different texa of classification.

Ans: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,  Genus and Species.

5. What type of hierarchy was given by Karl von Linne?

Ans: Von Linne believed that different species could he grouped into same categories on the basis of similarities between them.

6. What is nomenclature?

Ans: The assignment of a distinctive name to each species is called nomenclature.

7. Which authority is responsible for allocating name to different names’?

Ans: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

8. What is Molecular clock?

Ans: The constant mutation rate is called molecular clock.

9.What were the bases of classification of Robert Whitaker?

Ans: Cellular organization and Mode of nutrition.

10. What is evolutionary conservation?

Ans: The ribosomal RNA changes very slow ly This slowness of change is called evolutionary conservation.

11. What are Archaea?



Ans: These are prokaryotic microbes.

12. What is Eukarya?

Ans: The Fukarya include all eukaryotic organisms.

13. What are monophyletic?

Ans: The groups showing similarities due to single ancestors are called monophyletic.

14. What is a character?

Ans: A character is anything that has a genetic basis and can he measured from an anatomical feature to a sequence of nitrogenous bases in DNA or RNA.

15. What are polyphyletic groups?

Ans: Thegroups showing similarities but have separate ancestors are called

polyphyletic groups.

16. What is homology?

Ans: The resemblances that result from common ancestry are called homology.

17. What is numerical taxonomy?

Ans: The founders of numerical taxonomy believed that there are no criteria for grouping taxa.

18. Differentiate between symplesiomorphies and Synapomorphies.

Ans: The characters that all members of a group share are called symplesiomorphies. Characters that have arisen since common ancestry with the out-group are called derived characters or Synapomorphies.

19. What is eladogram?

Ans: The hypothetical lineage shown in a diagram is called a cladogram.

20. What is symmetry.?

Ans: The absence of a central point or axis around which body parts are
distributed is called symmetry.

21. What is radial symmetery?

Ans: Radial symmetry is the arrangement of body parts such that an) plane passing through the central oral-aboral axis divides the animal into mirror images.

22. What is biradial symmetry?

Ans: The paired arrangement of some structures in radially symmetrical animals is called birztdial symmetry.

23. What is bilateral symmetery?

Ans: Bilateral is the arrangement of body parts such that a single plane, passing between the upper and lower surfaces and through the longitudinal axis of an animal. dix ides the animal into right and left mirror images.

24. What is cephalization?

Ans: The formation of head is called cephalization.

25. What is hydroskeleton?

Ans:The skeleton or support produced by the support of pressure of fluid within the body cavity is called hydroskelcton.

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