1.Describe evolutionary perspective of echinoderms.

2. Give characteristics of Echinoderm.

3. Give relationship of echinoderm with other phyla.

4. Discuss symmetery of echinoderms.

5.Write note on endoskeleton of echinoderms.

6. Describe water vascular system in echinoderms.

7. Give Hamal system of echinoderms.

8. Deseribe classification of echinoderms up to class only.

9. Give oral and aboral surface in asteroidean.

10. Describe water canal system in asteroidean.

11. Describe nutrition in asteroidean.

12. Discuss respiration in asteroidean.

13. Give excretion in asteroidean.

14. Discuss nervous system in asteroidean.

15. Give regeneration in star fish

16. Describe sexual reproduction and development in sea star.

17. Describe body characters of Ophiuroidea.

18. Discuss digestion in Ophiuroidea.

19. Give asexual and sexual reproduction in Ophiuroidea.

20. Give body characteristics of Echinoidea.

21. Discuss nutrition in Echinoidea.

22. Give circulatory and excretory system of Echinoidea.

23. Give reproduction and development in Echinoidea.

24. Give body characteristics of Holothuroidea

25. Describe nutrition in Holothuroidea.

26. Give excretion and circulation in Holothuroidea.

27. How do sea urchins defend their body?

28. Describe reproduction and development in sea urchin.

29.Write note on seal lilies.

30. Give phylogenetic consideration of echinoderms.


1. What is pentaradial symmetery?

Ans: In this case, the body parts arc arranged in lives, or multiple of live, around an oral-ahoral axis. Radial symmetry is an adaptation for sedentary or slowly moving animals.

2. What is madreporite?

Ans: A sieve like plate is present at the end of stone canal. It is called the madreporite. 1 he madreporite is used as an inlet.

3. What are Tiedemann bodies?

Ans: Tiedemann bodies are swellings. They are associated with the ring canal. They are sites for the production of phagocytic cells are called coelomocytes.

4. What are Polian Vesicles?

Ans: Polian vesicles are sacs like structures. They are also associated with the ring canal, their function is storage of fluid for the water-vascular system.

5. What are tube feet?

Ans: The feet are extensions of the canal system. “[hey emerge through openings in skeletal ossieles. The tube feet end in a bulblike muscular ampulla.

6. Give two functions of the water canal system.

Ans: The water-vascular system is chiefly used for locomotion. The original function of water-vascular systems was feeding, not locomotion.

7. What are Ceoelomocytes?

Ans: Coelomocytes arc cells that engulf and transport waste particles within the body.

8. Name classes of Echinoderms.

Ans: Class Crinoidea, Class Asteroidca. Class Ophiuroidea, Class Concentricycloidea. Class Echinoidea, Class flolothuroidea

9. What are pedicellarieae?

Ans: Pedicellarieae clean and protect the body surface. Pedicellariae may be attached on a movable spine.



10. What is stepping motion?

Ans: Tube feet of sea stars move in a stepping motion. Sea star moves by alternate extension, attachment, and contraction of tube feet.

11. What are dermal branchiae?

Ans: Thin folds of the body wall extend between ossicles. It is called dermal branchiae. It is involved in gas exchange.

12. What are spawning pheromones?

Ans: These pheromones induced the other sea stars to spawn.

13. Name different developmental stage of sea star.

Ans: Bipinnaria larva. Brachiolaria larva and Juvenile sea star.

14. What are Ambulacral ossicles?

Ans: Ambulacral ossicles are in the arm form a central supportive axis. Successive ambulacral ossicles articulate with one another.

15. What are superficial ossicles?

Ans: Superficial ossicles originate on the aboral surface. They cover the lateral and oral surfaces of each arm.

16. What are bursae?

Ans: The bursae are membranous sacs. They invaginate to from the oral surface of the central disk.

17. What is Aristotle’s lantern?

Ans:  Mouth has a chewing apparatus, called Aristotle’s lantern. This apparatus can be projected from the mouth. Aristotle’s lantern consists of 35 ossicles and attached muscles. It cuts food into small pieces for ingestion.

18. What is trepang?

Ans: The boiled and dried body wall of sea cucumbers is called trepang in Asian countries. It may be eaten or it is added to soups for flavour and source of protein.

19. What is respiratory tree in Holothuroidea?

Ans: A pair of tubes called respiratory trees is attached at the rectum. Respiratory tree forms branches throughout the body cavity. The pumping action of the

20. What are Cuverian tubules?

Ans: Cuverian tubules are the tubules of the respiratory tree. These tubules contain icky secretions and toxins. These secretions can entangle and immobilize edators.

21. What is evisceration?

Ans: Sometimes, contraction of the body wall expels the one or both respiratory tree, digestive tract, and the gonads through the anus. This process is called evisceration.

22. What are pinnules?

Ans: The arms of sea lilies bear smaller branches called pinnules. It gives a feather like appearance.

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