I. What is nomenclature? Why is it necessary?
2. Give roles of nomenclature set by ICBN.
1.What are two problems with common name?
Ans: First, common names vary from country to country. Even they vary from region to region within a country. Second, many common names are used for taxonomic categories higher than the species level.
2.Why are the botanical names italicized?
Ans: These names are derived from Latin or Latinized. Therefore. the entire scientific name is italicizs:d or underlined.
3.What is Principle of Priority?
Ans: A scientific name is resersed for each type of plant. If by
misconception or error the same type of plant is given another scientific name. Then the valid name is older one. It is retained. The new name is Ciscarded and becomes the synonym. This rejection of the it me in favour of the valid name is known as the Principle of Priority.
4.What is meant by authority?
Ans: The person who first describes a nev species and gives it a name becomes the authority for that specie.
5.What are type specie and type genus?
Ans: The specimen on which a new species is based is preserved as the type specimen of that specie. Whenever a person describes a new species he indicates the plant on which this description is based and w here it has been deposited as the type specimen. Similarly the species on which a new genus is based becomes the type specie at genus. Similarly, the genus on v. hich a nos family is based becomes type genus of that family.
6.Differentiate into Holotype and Lectotype?
Ans:’Fite original type specimen of a species which has been
indicated by the author is know n as holotype. Sometimes. original author has not indicated any specific plant as the type specimen. Then a competent person selects a plant from the material originally studied by the author of that species. This selected type specimen is known as lectotype.
7.Differentiate between Neotype and Isotypes.
Ans: Sometime, the original material studied by the author is
missing. Then a competent research worker selects a specimen as type specimen. This specimen is known as the neotype. Sometimes, the author has other specimens other than the holotype in his collection. These all other, specimen of same species are known as the isotypes.
Ans: The specimens which have been referred by the author as similar to the type specimen are known as paratypes. Sometimes, more than one specimens have been designated by the author as type specimens. Now one of those specimens becomes the holotype while other ones are known as the syntypes.