SHORT QUESTIONS OF MORPHOLOGY

What is inflorescence? What is its advantage for plant?

Ans: A group of flower is called inflorescence. Most flowers develop inflorescence. Small ilower are inconspicuous. They collect together to form inflorescence to attract insects.

Differentiate between racemose and cymose inflorescences.

Ans: The inflorescence in which main axis develops lateral flowers and continues to grow indefinitely upto last flower is called racemose inflorescence. In this inflorescence the main axis soon ends in a flower. It gives one or two lateral branches or daughter axis. each of which ends flower.
This process repeated several times.

What is meant by acropetal succession?

Ans: In this case, oldest flowers are borne :towards the base ofinflorescence but younger flowers are borne towards the apex. In some case. main axis becomes flattened. In this case, oldest flowers are arranaed towards the periphery and youngest flowers are arranged towards the centre.

What are corymbs? Give example.

Ans: In this case, main axis is short and pedicles of the older flowers are longer and pedicles of the younger flowers are short Therefore, all the flowers come at the same level. Example: Candytuft.

Differentiate between spike and spiklets

Ans: The inflorescence in which main axis is elongated and bears sessile lateral flowers is called spike. The flowers may be bracteate or ebracteate. Example: Bottle brush, ginger. The dry spike which has one or few sessile flowers is called spikelets.

What is simple umbel? Give examples.

Ans: In this case, main axis above the first flower is much short
and flower appears to he arised from the same point. The younger flowers are 10%%ards the centre and the older flowers are towards the periphery. Bract may or may not present. If bract present it forms involucre rounds the base of umbel. Example: cherry, Fly drocotyle.

What is Capitulum or Head? Give example.

Ans: The inflorescence in which main axis flattened to form receptacle and flowers are crowed on it is called capitulum. The flowers are small and sessile. These are called florets. The young florets ate present at the centre of receptacle and older flowers are present towards the periphery. The receptacle has mans oveclapping bracts at the base called involucre.

What is Hypanthodium?

Ans: It is a modified tbrni of capitulum. In this case, the
receptacle grows upwards along its margin and form hollow pear shaped structure. It has apical opening guarded by scales. Unisexual flowers are developed on the inner surface of the hollow receptacle.

What is meant by hasipetal succession?

Ans: In this case, the terminal flowerfig: hypanthodium flowers are younger. ‘File flower
inflorescence. The young flowers are present towards the periphery in cluster and old flowers are present in the central region. Such arrangement is called centrifugal.

Differentiate between scorpioid and helicoids cymes.

Ans: Scorpioid cyme: In this case, new daughter axis develops alternatively, i.e. right and left side. Example Henbane Helicoid cynic: In this case, new daughter axis develops on the same side. Example: Begonia.

 What is cymose head? Give examples.

Ans: The compact globose inflorescence having groups of’ sessile scorpioid cymes is called cymose head. In this case, flowers are arranged in groups or clusters. Each of which is a scorpioid cynic. The main axis and daughter axes are much reduced. Flowers are almost sessile. Example: Acacia

What is Compound umbel or Umbel of umbels?

Ans: Branched umbel is called compound umbel. The branches arise from the main axis form primary umbel. The flowers arise from each branch forms secondary umbel or partial umbel.

What is Cyathium?

Ans.: It looks like a single flower. But in reality, it is aninflorescence. Many axes are reduced in it. Complete suppression of sepals and petals occur in flowers.


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What is Verticillaster? Give example.

Ans: In this ease, the bracts in the floral region are opposite. Each bract has a cluster of sessile flowers in its axis. The to clusters at the node form Method like arrangements called vertieillaster. I he cluster of Iltn ens is biparous cynic at first. Suppression of one or two branches occurs in it and it becomes Uniparous. Example: OLlinum

What are fruit, parthenocarpic and pseducarpic fruits?

Ans: The ripened ovary containing seeds is called fruit. Some fruits are without seeds e.g. banana, pineapples. These fruits are called parthcncarpic. The fruit formed from only ovary is called true fruit. Some other pails of the flower like thalamus. calyx also takes part in the formation of fruits like apple. Such fruits are called pesudocarp.

Differentiate between simple and aggregate fruits.

Ans: The fruits formed from a single flower with gynoecium monocarpellary or polycarpilIary and syncarpous is called simple fruit. The collection of simple fruitlets developed from an apocarpous pistil of single flower is called aggregate fruits.

Differentiate between legume and follicle fruits.

Ans: The fruit formed from monocarpellary pistil and dehiscence along both dorsal and ventral sutures is called legume. The fruit formed from monocarpellary pistil and dehiscence along only one suture is called follicle.

What is shizocarpic fruit?

Ans: The dry, many seeded fruits which break into a number of one seeded parts on ripening is called shizocarpic fruit. If these one seeded parts are indehiscent, they . are called mericarps. If they are dehiscent. they are called cocci.

What is regma? Give examples.

Ans: The fruit developed from multilocular ovary with each
locule having single seed and ripened fruit break up into a number of one seeded dehiscent parts called cocci is called regma. This fruit develops from polycarpillary, syncarpous pistil with superior multi ocular ovary. Example: castor oil

What are simple succulent fruits? Give its types.

Ans: The wall of ovary (pericarp) of ripened succulent or fleshy
fruit is composed of three layers. These layers are epicarp (outer wall), mesocarp (middle layer) and endocarp (inner layer). Some of these layees become dry and hard. One or more of them become fleshy and juicy. There are three types of succulent fruits: drupes. berries and ponies.

What is drupe? Give its characteristics.

Ans: The succulent fruit in w hich mesocarp forms the edible portion of fruit and endocarp forms a hard shell or stone is called drupe. Drupe is derived from monocarpellary pistil with a superior o‘arv. lhey are generally one seeded. Their pericarp shows three distinct layers.

What are berries? Give examples.

Ans: The indehiscent many seeded fleshy fruit in which mesocarp and endocarp forms pulp is called berries. They are derived from superior or inferior ovaries. The epicarp forms the outer skin. The mesocarp and endocarps are succulent and forms pulp. It has no stony endocarps. Example: Brinjal, Tomato, Grapes, orange, date.

What is Syconus? Give examples.

Ans: The composite fruit formed from -a hollow pear shaped hypanthodium inflorescence is called syconus. There is a small opening at the top of hypanthodium. It is guarded by scales. The receptacle of the hypanthodium becomes fleshy and forms the edible part of the fruit. The ovaries of the female flowers develop into runlets. These millets are embedded in the wall of receptacle. Examples: Peepal.

What is Strohilus?

Ans: The composite fruit develop from a cone like female inflorescence is called strobilus. It is found in hops. This inflorescence consists of a central axis bearing number ofmembranous scales. The female flowers are enclosed in membranous bracteoles. The true fruits are achenes. They are enclosed in the bracteoles and scales.

 

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