SHORT QUESTIONS OF MORPHOLOGY AND PHYTOGRAPH

 Differentiate between tap and adventitious roots.

AnS: The root directly arise(‘ frOrn the seed is called tap iout. The roots arised from the stems or sometimes lea es arc called ad‘entitious roots.

 Differentiate between fibrous tap roots and tuberous tap roots.

Ans:  The long and slender tap root with slender branches is called fibrous tap root. the thick or ~Hen tap roots \kith reserke food are Wm\ n as tuberous tap roots.

Differentiate between Fibrous adventitious roots and Tuberous adventitious roots.

AnsFibrous adventitious roots are long and slender roots. These commonly clop on creeping and underground stems like grasses. tuberous mbentitions roots are sôIlcn and Ileshy roots. [hese roots contain stored food material. samples: Asparagus. su.eet potato.

Differentiate between annual and biennials plants.

Ans: The plants k Inch lk e oak or single grtm in season are called annuals. The plants which lives for two  growing seasons are called biennials.

What are herb. shrub and trees? Give examples.

Ans: an annual green small plant is called herb. e.g. radish. I It uoody green plant stein cannot he distinguished Iron its

branches is called shrub. rose. It k Perennial green kood a &shim upright.

What are twiners? Give example.

Ans: The plants whose stem tss in or coil around some support are called twiners. .They do not have any special organ lisr climbing. Example: Cuscuta

What are trailers? Gise examples.

Ans: In these plants, the Ni em, spread out or trail on the ground. Their stem is called prostate stem. Its types are Creeper. runner, sticker and ski Ion.

Differentiate between runner and stolon.

Ans: Runner is a slender. stem. It runs along the surface of the ground. Examples: grasses. Stolon is a much elongated runner. It bends doss ins ard and enters into soil or touches it. Example: Jasmine

What are suckers? Give examples.

Ans: Sucker is an underground runner or shoots. It arises from an axillary bud develop on the underground stein. It grows upward and gives rise to aerial branches. It gives off adventitious roots Um) soil. Thus a new plant is formed. Example: mint

What is rhizome? Give example.

Ans: The elongated, horizontal, thick and fleshy underground stem is called rhizome. It has a large amount of stored food. It has distinct nodes and hut:modes. Nodes give off adventitious roots. It also gis es off aerial branches. Examples: ginger

.Differentiate between Rhizome and corm.

Ans: The elongated. hornontal. thick and fleshy underground stem is called dinotne. The thick solid, rounded. condensed -underground stem rim internodes is called corm.

What is bulb? Name its types.

Ans: A specialized much reduced short underground stem composed of broad’s conical disc is called bulb. Its is pes are tunicated bulb and seal) bulb.

DFrferentiated between tunicated bulb and scaly bulb.

Ans: ‘the bulb in vhicli lea% es surround each other is calle tunicated bulb. 1 he bulb in ss Inch leases medals each other at their margins is called imbricate bulb.

What are stem tubers? Give exam plc

Ans: he swollen underground tips of branches or cnical axis

which store food and use for vegetative propagation is called stem tuber. Example potato.What are Phylloclaile and Cladode? Give examples.

Ans: In sonic dry plants, true leaves are reduced to scales. Itprevents transpiration. ‘their stems become flattened, green and leaf like. They perlbrm the function of leaf. Such leaves like stems are called phylloclade and cladode. Phylloclades are composed of more than one internode. They are found in Opuntia. Cladodes are composed of single internode. They are found in euphorhia.

What is thalamus? Give its functions.

Ans: The enlarge tip of the stalk of flower is called thalamus. It

bears floral leaves like sepals, petals etc. These floral leaves are modified foliage leaves.

What are leaves? Give their functions.

Ans: Leaves are green flat structures borne on the stem or on the braches. Leaves arise from the nodes. They have buds in their axils. Leaves increase the surface area for absorption of sunlight. They prepare food by photosynthesis. They also carry on transpiration.

IS. What are scale leaves? Give their function.

Ans: The small, undeveloped, sessile and colourless leaves are

called scale leaves. they are protective leaves. They protect the young foliage leases in bud. They are developed in many underground sterns like suckers, bulbs, rhizomes corm etc.

 What are Bracts and Bracteoles? Give their importance.

Ans: The special leaf in the axil of which flower arises is called

bract. These are usually small and scale like. they may he green or coloured. One or two leaves present on the stalk of flower are called bracteoles. The primary function of bracts and bracteoles are’ to protect the flower from sunlight and rain.

What are stipules and stiples

A us: Pair of outgrowths developed at the base of the petiole of a leaf are called stipules. the stiisule like structures present at base of leaflets of a compund leaf are called stiples.

What are persistant and deciduous stipules?

Ans: Sonic stipules remians in place as long as the leaf persists. Such stipules are called persistant stipules. Sonic stipules falloff as soon as the leaf unfolds. Such stipules are called deciduous stipules.

What is phyllotaxis? Give its advantages.

Ans: The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is called

phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis reduces overcimsding. Therefore, the leaves get maximum sunlight.

Differentiate between spiral and cyclic phyllotaxis.

Ans: The phyllotaxis in N%hich single leaf borne at each node is called spiral phyllotaxis. The phyllotaxis in which two or more leaf borne at each node is called cyclic ph) !Iota\ is.

What is venation? What is its advantage?

Ans: The arrangement of veins and veinlets in the lamina of a leaf is called venation. The veins and veinlets transport water and dissolved minerals into various pwhich store food and use for vegetative propagation is called stem tuber. Example potato.

What are Phylloclaile and Cladode? Give examples.

Ans: In sonic dry plants, true leaves are reduced to scales. It prevents transpiration. ‘their stems become flattened, green and leaf like. They perlbrm the function of leaf. Such leaves like stems are called phylloclade and cladode. Phylloclades are composed of more than one internode. They are found in Opuntia. Cladodes are composed of single internode. They are found in euphorhia.

What is thalamus? Give its functions.

Ans: The enlarge tip of the stalk of flower is called thalamus. It bears floral leaves like sepals, petals etc. These floral leaves are modified foliage leaves.

What are leaves? Give their functions.

Ans: Leaves are green flat structures borne on the stem or on the braches. Leaves arise from the nodes. They have buds in their axils. Leaves increase the surface area for absorption of sunlight. They prepare food by photosynthesis. They also carry on transpiration.


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IS. What are scale leaves? Give their function.

Ans: The small, undeveloped, sessile and colourless leaves are

called scale leaves. they are protective leaves. They protect the young foliage leases in bud. They are developed in many underground sterns like suckers, bulbs, rhizomes corm etc.

19. What are Bracts and Bracteoles? Give their importance.

Ans: The special leaf in the axil of which flower arises is called

bract. These are usually small and scale like. they may he green or coloured. One or two leaves present on the stalk of flower are called bracteoles. The primary function of bracts and bracteoles are’ to protect the flower from sunlight and rain.

What are stipules and stiples

Ans: Pair of outgrowths developed at the base of the petiole of a leaf are called stipules. the stiisule like structures present at base of leaflets of a compund leaf are called stiples.

What are persistant and deciduous stipules?

Ans: Sonic stipules remians in place as long as the leaf persists.
Such stipules are called persistant stipules. Sonic stipules fall.

off as soon as the leaf unfolds. Such stipules are called deciduous stipules.

What is phyllotaxis? Give its advantages.

Ans: The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is called

phyllotaxis. Phyllotaxis reduces overcimsding. Therefore, the leaves get maximum sunlight.arts of the leaf. They also carry the prepared material from leaf to stein.

Differentiate between parallel and reticulate venation.

Ans: The venation in which many veins of equal size run parallel to each other from the base to apex or from midrib to margin of leaf is called parallel venation. The venation in which smaller veins arise from the midrib and form network is called reticulate venation.

What is Pinnate or Unicostate reticulate venation?

Ans: In this case, the leaf has single midrib. It gives off lateral branches which run towards the margin of the leaf. ‘fire veins give off smaller branches in all directions and limn a network. Example: mango. guava.

What is Leaf Insertions? Give its different types.

Ans: The attachment of leaves to the stem or branches is called insertion of leaf. These are: Cauline: In this case. the leaves develop on the main stem. Examples: sun Ilmker. Remal: In this case, the leaves develop on the branches. Example: Mango. Radical: In this case, the leaves appear to come out from roots. Example: radish, beet.

Differentiate between Pinnate and Palmate compound leaves.

Ans: The compound leaf in which leaflets arise from the sides of the rachis is called pinnate compound leaf. Example: leaf of rose. The compound leaf in AhicIi leaflets arise from one point at the tip of the petiole is called palmate compoud

 What are Phyllodes? Give example.

Ans: In some plants. the compound lain inn of leaves becomes less developed. The petiole becomes flattened. Finally the lamina is degenerated and shoots bears flattened petioles. These flattened petioles are called PhyHodes. Example: Ruscus.

 What are bract and bracteoles?

Ans: A special leaf in the ax II of ss Inch flower borne is called bract. The small leases or scale like structures borne on the pedicel of a flower are called bracteoles.

Differentiate between actinomorphic and zygomorphic symmetry.

Ans: the flower can be nit into two equal halves by more than one plane. it is called actinomorphic or regular. Example: poppy. II the flower can he cut into two equal halves by onls one plane, it is called zygomorphic or regular. Example: Ocimum.

What is meant by incomplete flower? Give its types.

Ans: Either cal) x or corolla or both absent. Flower is called monochalmydeous, if one of the calyx or corolla is absent. It may be apetalous or asepalous. II both calyx and corolla are absent, it is called achabnydeous.

What is imperfect flower? Give its types.

Ans: A unisexual flower is called imperfect flower. in this case. either stamen or carpel is present. If only stamen is present. it is called staminate. If only carpel is present, it is called

pistillate. •

What are thalamus, anthophore and androphre?

Ans: The terminal swollen part of the flower, which bears sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, is called thalamus. It is very short in most flowers. But sometimes, it becomes very long. It has distinct nodes and intemodes. The interim& between calyx and corolla is called anthophore. The intemode between corolla and androecium is called androphore. The intentode between androecium and gynoecium is called gynophore.

What is hypogenous condition? Give example.

Ans: Hypogynous: In this case. thalamus is convex or conical. The gynoecium develops on the top of thalamus. But stamens, petals and sepals are bore on the side of gynoecium. Gynoecitim is superior but all other parts are inferior. Example: Brassica. poppy.

What is gamosepalous? Nameits different forms.

Ans: All sepals are united. They form follow ing structures: Tubular, Infunidbuliform, Globose, Hi labiate. I Tootled, Spurred.

What is Papilionaceous

Ans: In this case. there are 5 clawed petals These petals are not similar. The) are found in pea

  • Standard or Vesillum: It is the upper posterior petal It is large and conspicuous.

  • Wings: These are two lateral free petals.

  • Keel or Carina: Ihese are two anterior most petals. They fuse to form a boat- shaped structure.

What is androecium?

Ans: Androecium is the collective name of stamens. It forms third whorl of the flower. Stamen has two parts: filament and anther. Anther consists of two anther lobes. These lobes are jointed by a hand of connective tissues called connective. Each anther lobe has two longitudinal chambers called pollen sacs.

What is Placentation?

Ans: The cushion like ridges inside the ovary on which ovules are

attached is called placent:. The arrangement of placentas ill the ovary is called placvntation.

What is Parietal Placentation? Give its types.

Ans: In this ease, the ovary is compound and unilocidar., ‘The fused margins of the carpels swell up to ‘form placentas. Ovules attach on it. Sometimes. fused margins of the carpels grow inward to form incomplete septa. It divides each ovary into number of incomnlete compartments. The ovules are borne on the surface of these septa like cucumber.

 

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