OBJECTIVES OF PROTECTION, SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

Choose the best choice for the statements from the multiple choices

1-In animals, structure and function have evolved together. Several results of this evolution are

(a) protection               (b) support

(c) movement               (d) all of a, b, c.

  1. Tissues found in our body are derived from

(a)    embryonic ectoderm

(b)    embryonic endoderm

(c)    embryonic mesoderm

(d)   all of these.

  1. Skin in a vertebrate consists of

(a)    epidermis  (b) dermis   (c)    both of these   (d)   cuticle

  1. In protozoa, the gas exchange and  removal of soluble wastes occur by

(a)    simple diffusion   (b)    osmosis  (c)    active transport  (d)   all of these.

  1. The main functions of tegument in

parasitic flukes and tapeworms are

(a)    nutrient ingestion

(b)    protection against digetion by host enzymes. (c)    both a and t

(d)   movement

  1. In taxidermy. the skin is

(a)    classified

(b)    preserved with the help of chemicals.

(c)    diseased

(d)   used in classification of animals.

  1. Pelage is the term given to

(a)    hairy covering of skin (b)    skin only (c)    muscles below dermis

(d)   Feather’s covering.

8. Integument perform the following functions in animals

(a) protects from chemical and mechanical injuries

(b)    protects from injuries by micro organisms

(c)    all of a and b

  1. Epidermis in the mammals is

(a)    glandular epithelium   (b)    compound stratified epithelium

(c)    sensory epithelium  (d)   simple squamous epithelium.

10. The skeleton of the anthropods is composed of very light waxy substance known as

(a) lignin           (b) cuticle  (c) chitin         (d) tegument

11. The skin layer, consisting of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, and nerve ending, separate the skin from deeper tissues is

(a)    epidermis   (b)    endodermis  (c)    dermis  (d)   hypodermis

12. Denticles in sharks contain blood vessels and nerves, and are similar to

(a)    vertebrate teeth  (b)    vertebrate skin  (c)    vertebrate bone

(d)   non of these.

13. In Arthropods, epidermis secretes a complex culticle of two zones. The thicker inner zone is called

(a)    epicuticle  (b)    procuticle (c)    hypocuticle. (d)   endocuticle.

14 Hard chitinous exoskeleton is found in the animals of the phylum

(a)    Annelids  (b)    Arthropoda    (c)    Mollusca  (d)   Cnidaria

15. Exoskeleton in cockroach is made tip of

(a)    calcified cartilage  (b)    chitin  (c)    pseudochitin  (d)   CaCO3

16-Moulting or ecdysis is a necessary phenomenon in insects because it is responsible for

(a) GROWTH      (b) breeding   (c) feeding        (d) excretion.

17 We would describe the layered, flat, scaly epithelium of human skin as

(a)   simple squamous    (b)   stratified squamous

(c)    stratified columnar   (d)   pseudostratified cuboidal

`8- Which of the following structures or substances is incorrectly paired with a tissue?

(a)   Haversian system – bone.

(b)   Chondroin sulfate – cartilage

(c)    fibroblasts – skeletal muscle.

(d)   basement membrane – epithelium.

19-Which part of skin prevents dehydration and is a first line of defense against many toxic substances and microorganisms.

(a)   stratum corneum    (b)   stratum germinativum

(c)    basement membrane    (d)   collagen fibers.

20-In the process of tanning, the

(a)   epidermis is treated with salts of heavy metals.

(b)   dermis is treated with salts of heavy metals.

(c)    both are treated with salts of heavy metals.

(d)   both of them are treated with acids of heavy metals.

21-The skin lets in some necessary rays from sun that convert a chemical in the skin into

(a)   Vitamin E    (b)   Vitamin K     (c)    Vitamin D     (d)   all of these

22-Which of the following glands in skin are responsible for temperature regulation

(a)   cutaneous glands    (b)   mucous glands.

(c)    sudoriferous glands.   (d)   sebaceous glands.

23. Temperature regulation in animals involves

(a)   increase in temperature according to environmental temperature

(b)   decrease in body temperature according to environmental temperature.

(c)    increase or decrease in body temperature with rise or fall in environmental temperature

(d)   maintenance of a constant body temperature in all conditions.

24 Excessive sweating or perspiration in mammals helps mainly in

(a)   getting rid of excess water from body

(b)   maintaining body temperature at a constant level by losing heat.

(c)    elimination of nitrogenous waste matter.

(d)   elimination of excess of salts from the body.

25 Nails, hoofs and horns are examples of

(a)      bone (b)      cartilage    (c)   connective tissue.  (d) keratinized derivatives.

26. Hairs in mammals are derivatives of

(a)      dermis  (b)      epidermis    (c)       mesodermis   (d)      endodermis.

27. The body colour in mammals is determined by

(a)   melanin and melanoid pigments  (b)   carotene  (c)    haemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin     (d)   all of these

  1. strata of epidermis In which of the  of  mammals the pigment carotene is found

(a)   stratum corneum  (b)   stratum Malpighi

(c)    stratum lucidum   (d)   none of these

29. Which of the following pigment is present throughout the mammalian epidermis?

(a)      melanin    (b)      melanoid

(c haemoglobin   (d)    oxyhaemoglobin

30. Which sets of characters will be more useful to the animal when outside temperature is considerably higher than body temperature.

(a)    skirismooth covered with oil  (b)    skin dark, covered with feathers

(c)    skin rough, with scales  (d)   skin soft, with abundant sweat glands.

31. Sweat glands in mammals are concerned primarily with

(a)    osmoregulation   (b)    rendering skin water proof

(c)    regulation of body temperature  (d)   removal of excess salt from body.

32. Secretion of sabaceous glands in mammals helps mainly in

(a)    regulating body temperature  (b)    making skin soft and supple.

(c)    plugging pores of body to keep body warm.

(d)   killing bacteria upon skin.

33. Which of the following helps in keeping warm in cold environment

(a)    fatty layer of skin  (b)    hairs on skin  (c)    pigment in skin

(d)   rich blood supply in skin

34. Dense fur in temperate animals protects them from

(a) snow ,     (b) air (c)    cold    (d) heat

35. Capability to change the colour of skin in frog is termed

(a)    metamorphosis   (b)metachrosis  (c)  hibernation (d)   all of these

36. Colouration in frog and other amphibians is due to

(a)    chromatophores (b)    irridescence of skin

(c)    presence of pigment in epidermal cells(d)   presence of pigment in dermis

37. Earthworms move with the help of

(a)    setae, muscles and hydrostatic skeleton (b)    setae alone

(c)    muscles alone.   (d)   parapodia.

38. A skeleton like function is performed in earthworms during locomotion by

(a)    alimentary canal laden with mud. (b)    coelomic fluid.

(c)    clitellum (d)   ventral nerve cord.

39. Skeleton forming cells in sponges are called

(a)    scleroblasts   (b)    cnidoblasts

(c)    collencytes  (d)   desmocytes.

40. Endoskeleton of calcareous plates is found in

(a)    star fish   (b)    house fly  (c)    pila    (d)   cockroach

41. Jointed appendages are found in

(a)    Annelida  (b)    Mollusca  (c)    Adhropoda (d)   Echinodermata.

42. The endoskeleton of echinoderms consists of

(a)    mineral spicules. (b)    ossicles (c)    fibers of spongin (d)   none of these

43. Which of these is supporting structure in our body

(a) muscles                 (b) nerves

(c) tendons                 (d) endoskeleton

44. Axial skeleton in man includes which of these

(a)    skull    (b)    vertebral column

(c)    both of these  (d)   skull, vertebral column and girdles.

45. Skeleton in aquatic animals may be less bulky and less strong than terrestrial animals due to

(a)    bouyancy of water. V (b)    pressure of water

(c)    larger size of land animals (d)   presence of limbs in land animals.

46- Appendicular skeleton in vertebrates Consists of

a) skull and vertebral colum  (b)girdles and limbs

(c)vertebral column and limbs (d)vertebral column and girdle.

47 In locomotion, movement between two structures of which of the following sets akes part in man

(a)  femur and pelvic girdle. (b)  humerus and pectoral girdle.

(c)  humerus and ulna  (d)  skull and atlas.

48. In which of these animals both exoskeleton and endoskeleton are found

a)frog     b)earthworm          c)snake         d)all of these.

49-Bone tissue also contains inorganic salts mainly.

a)  calcium phosphate    b)  calcium carbonate

c)  both a and b     d)  calcium suphate

50 pseudopodia in Amoeba help mainly in

a)locomotion    b)food capturing     c) both a and b   d) defence.

51-Just as pseudopodia are found in moeba, there are

a)  legs in cockroach    b)  teeth in rabbit

c)  suckers in tape worm    d)  spicules in sponges.

52-Longitudinal and circular muscles are  found,in the body wall of

a)sponges   b)cnidarians   c)annelids    d)all of these

53-Crawling in earthworm occurs by

a)prostomium   b)setae        c)papilla       d)clitellum.

54 Setae are found in

(a)    earthworms (b)    leechesn (c)    Nereis (d)   all of these

55. Locomotion in earthworms is directly faciliated by

(a)    mucus secreted by epidermis  (b)    segmentation of body

(c)    rhythmic conractions of body segments (d)   setae only

56. Pseudopodia of Amoeba are

(a) lobopodia               (b) filopodia

(c) axopodia                (d) all of these

57. Pseudopodia are formed in Amoeba when

(a)    it comes in contact to food particle

(b)    it comes in contact with an obstacle

(c)    there is exchange of salts with the medium there is increase pressure of cytoplasm.

58. In animals that lack hard skeleton, a fluid filled gastrovascular cavity or coelom can act as

(a)    exoskeleton  (b)    endoskeleton

(c)    hydrostatic skeleton  (d)   axial skeleton.

59. Joints occur where

(a)    muscles meet (b)    bones meet

(c)    cartilage meet  (d)   veins meet

60 -Which of these is a direct source cf energy for muscle contraction.?

(a)    ATP     (b)    creatine phosphate

(c)    lactic acid    (d)   glucose

61      Muscular contraction involves which of these

(a)    biochemical events (b)    biophysical events

(c)    both of these events. (d)   none of these events.

62. When muscle contracts

(a)    sarcomere increase in size  (b)    myosin slides past actin

(c)    lactic acid is produced  (d)   both a and b

63. Muscle fatigue is caused by

(a)      CO2  (b)      lactic acid

(c)       fumaric acid  (d)      ethyl alcohol.

64 Besides ATP the other sources for providing energy for muscular contraction are

(a)   breakdown of creatine phosphate  (b)   myokinase activity

(c)    both of these  (d)   none of these

65 During recovery phase of muscle contraction the processes occurring are

(a)   breakdown of lactic acid formed during contraction phase.

(b)   resynthesis of creatine phosphate.

(c)    resynthesis of ATP   (d)   all of these.

66 Which of these structures over myosin help in contraction of the muscle fibre.

(a)   cross bridge over spur.  (b)   tropomyosin protein.

(c)    both of these.  (d)   none of these.

67. During muscle contraction

(a)   actomyosin contracts so that cross bridges tilt dragging filaments of actin towards H zone.

(b)   only myosin contracts pulling actin filaments towards H zone.

(c)    both of these processes occur simultaneously

(d)   none of these processes occur.

68. Cross bridges are found on

(a) actin                      (b) myosin


----------------------------


----------------------------

(c) troponin                (d) tropomyosin

69. Which of these are released before muscle contraction from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

(a)   calcium ions  (b)   magnesium ions

(c)    potassium ions  (d)   none of these.

70. Which of these processes mark the beginning of muscular contraction.

(a) release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

(b) withdrawl of calcium ions into sarcoplasmic reticulum.

(c)    both of these processes.   (d)   none of these processes.

71 The contraction of a muscles is caused by

(a)   actin   (b)   myosin  (c)    actomyosin   (d)   ATP

72. Muscles are fatigued by accumulation of

(a)   myosin ATP as   (b)   carbondioxide

(c)    lactic acid   (d)   none of these

73 When a muscle is repeatedly stimulated during its contraction period without permitting relaxation for a very long time It does not relax. This stage is called

(a)   tetany                   (b) fatigue

(b)   treppe                   (c) none of these

74 The cause of muscular tetany is

(a)   infection of tetanus bacillus.

(b)   deficiency of parathyroid hormone.

(c)    excess of sodium ions in sarcoplasm.

(d)   none of these.

75. Which of these are examples of antagonistic muscles in our body

(a)   biceps and triceps  (b)   adductors and abductors

(c)    pronators and suppinators  (d)   all of these.

76 The integument of most multicellular invertebrates consists of a

(a)   multilayer of cells  (b)   layer called the skin

(c)    complex of a variety of chemicals, fibres, cellulose, or chitin

(d)   single layer of cells.

77. Animals have three types of skeletons. Which of the following is not one of the three types?

(a)   fluid hydrostatic  (b)   rigid exoskeleton

(c)    fluid exoskeleton  (d)   rigid endoskeleton

78. The supportive tissue in the vertebrate skeleton consists of

(a) cartilage                 (b) bone

(c) muscle                   (d) both a and b

79 The outer protein coat of many protozoans is called the

(a) tegument             (b) pellicle

(c) epidermis            (d) dermis

80. The outer layer of flukes and tapeworms is the

(a) tegument              (b) pellicle

(c) epidermis              (d) dermis

81. The vertebrate integument is the

(a) epidermis            (b) dermis

(c) skin                       (d) hypodermis

82. The skin that is multilayered and

contains mucous and sensory cells, and placoid scales called denticles is the skin of

(a)bony fishes    (b)cartilagenous fishes

(c) jawless fishes  (d)reptiles

83. What type of skeleton would you find in  an arthropod?

(a)  fluid hydrostatic (b)  rigid exoskeleton

(c)  rigid endoskeleton  (d)  all of the above (a — c)

84 The notable feature of mammalian skin is/are

(a)   hair

(b)   greater variety of epidermal glands than in any vertebrae group

(c)   a highly stratified cornified epidermis

(d)   all of the above (a — c)

85 Modification of epidermis in mammalian  skin include

(a)   hair    (b)   nails    (c)   horns  (d)   all of the above (a — c)

86-Carthage (a supportive tissue), makes up the major skeletal component in all of the following except

(a) gastropods            (b) lawless fishes

(c) rays                         (d) sharks

87-With the exception of ________ locomotor cilia and flagella occur in every animal phyla

(a) protozoa                 (b) molluscs

(c) arthropods             (d) aschelminths

88 The predominent muscle type in many invertebrates is

(a) skeletal                   (b) smooth

(c) cardiac                    (d) both a and b

89 Flatworms, some cnidarians, and the gastropod molluscs move by means of waves of activity in the muscular system that are applied to the substrate. This type of movement is called

(a)   pedal locomotion

(b)   looping locomotion

(c)    water-vascular locomotion

(d)   walking

90 Looping movements are observed in

(a) earthworms           (b) polychaetes

(c) echinoderms         (d) leeches

91 The functional unit in a skeletal muscle is called

(a) actin filament        (b) sarcomere

(c) Z line                       (d) myosin filament

92 The snout of crocodiles is

(a)   rounded at the tip

(b)   tapers forward from the eyes

(c)    pointed at the tip

93. When the mouth is closed, the fourth bottom tooth on each side of the lower jaw is exposed in

(a) crocodiles              (b) alligators
(c) in both a and b

Write the precise answer of the statement in the blank space

provided against each statement.

1. In Paramecium, the thick protein coat outside the plasma membrane is called __________.

  1. he organs for locomotion in Paramecium are________
  2. he non cellular protective, organic layer secreted by the epithelium of many invertebrates is called_________
  1. The process in which there is a periodic shedding off of the old, outgrown cuticle in some invertebrates, such as arthropods is known as_______
  1. The complex syncytium on outer covering of parasitic flukes and tape worms is known as
  2. The largest organ with respect to surface area in the vertebrate body is the_________.
  3. In cartilagenous fishes the dermis contains bone in the form of small placoid scales called_______
  4. In arthropods the outer zone of cuticle, lying on he external surface above the procutilcle is the_______
  5. The process of deposition of calcium carbonate in outer layers of procuticle in decapod crustaceans is known as_______
  6. The process in insects in which hardening of procuticle occurs when protein molecules bond together with stabilizing cross linkages within an adjacent lamellae is called as ______
  7. The epidermal glands embedded in the dermis of some amphibians that produce a toxic fluid are called_______
  8. The nerves that penetrate the epidermis as free nerve endings are called as____________.
  9. The only epidermal gland is birds is the ______the tough, water resistant protein found in the epidermal layers of the skin of reptiles, birds, and mammals is the_______
  10. The name of the outer skin layer, that is made of keratinized cells is the________
  11. The thickest portion of the mammalian skin that contains blood vessels, lymphatic
  12. vessels, nerves, hair follicles, small muscles, and glands is the______
  13.  The tissue which stores energy in the form of fat and provide insulation in cold environment is the_______18 The melanin is generally present in the mammalian skin in stratum__________19 The process of secreting the sweat from sweat glands is known as________20 The chemical secreted in some mammals by sweat glands that communicates with other members of the same species to elicit certain behavioural responses is known as_______21 The glands in the dermis connected to hair follides are the________

    22 The oily secretion secreted from the sebaceous glands is the_________

    23 The action in humans by which arrector pili muscles contract and keep hair to an errect position is called as_______

    24 The elastic protein found in some arthropod’s joints that stores energy and functions in jumping is the_______ •

    25 The specialized type of connective tissue that provide a point of attachment for muscles and transmits the force of muscular contractions is called_______

    26 Spongy bone is lattice like rather than________

    27 The specialized connective tissue that provide a point of attachment for muscles and transmits the force of muscular contraction is the______

28-The connective tissue layer that surrounds the joins is the__________

29 Name the matrix of protein in which both bone cells and cartilage cells are  embedded_______

30 Which group of vertebrates do not have a well-defined vertebral column_________

31 Name the most swift type of locomotion in mammals.

32. The living cells of cartilage are called________

33. What is the function of intervertabral discs in the vertebral column_______

34. Name the locomotory organs of molluscs_______

35. Name the membrane enclosing each muscle________

36. In animals extensor muscle works in opposite direction (is antagonistic) than which muscle?_______

37. Name the hormone which controls molting in insects_______

38 Which biomolecule is stored as reserve food in muscle cells?________

39 How many vertebrae are there in the cervical region of most mammals?_________

40 To which regulatory protein, calcium binds in muscle cells?________

41 Name the substance which forms exoskeleton of cockroach_______
42-In which group of invertebrates motile cilia are absent?

43-The flight muscles of insects are called_______

44-Name the type of locomotion exhibited by flatworms, some cnidarians, and the gastropod molluscs______

45 What type of locomotion is exhibited by leeches?_______

46. Name the unique means of locomotion in echinoderms_______

47 The thin filaments in myofibrils are chemically_______

48. The contraction of striated muscles is initiate by the release of energy in the presence of______

49. What part of sarcomere shortens when skeletal muscle contracts?_______

50. The energy required for muscle contraction is derived from_______

51 Which substance on accumulation causes muscular fatigue?_______

52. How much lactic acid formed is resynthesized into glycogen?______

53-The myosin cross band attaches to which protein to undergo a power stroke____________.

54-Name the functional unit of contractile system in a striped muscle______

55 Name the chief source of energy for muscle contraction______

56 What is the name used for endoplasmic reticulum in a muscle cell ______

57 In what condition the muscle offers no contraction?_______

58 The power behind the muscular movements in both invertebrates and vertebrates is___________

59-In which group of animals familiar endoskeletons, both cartilagenous and bony, first appeared?________

60-The endoskeleton of sponges consist of______

                                     ANSWERS

MCQs

123

Precise Answers

  1. Pellicle
  2. Cilia
  3. Cuticle
  4. Molting or ecdysis.
  5. tegument.
  6. skin.
  7. denticles.
  8. epicuticle.
  9. calcification
  10. sclerotization.
  11. poison gland.
  12. Sensory nerves.
  13. uropygial or preen glano
  14. keratin.
  15. stratum corneum
  16. Dermis
  17. Adipose tissue.
  18. Malpighi
  19. perspiration.
  20. pheromone.
  21. Sebaceous glands
  22. sebum.
  23. goose bump
  24. resilin
  25. cartilage
  26. compact
  27. Osseous tissue.
  28. fibrous capsule
  29. collagen
  30. jawles fishes
  31. Unguligrades.
  32. Chondrocytes
  33. articulation
  34. Foot.
  35. sarcolemma
  36. flexor
  37. Ecdysone.
  38. glycogen.
  39. seven
  40. troponin
  41. chitinous cuticle
  42. Nematodes.
  43. Asynchronous muscles.
  44. Pedal locomotion.
  45. looping movement.
  46. water-vescular system.
  47. Actin, tropomyosin, troponin.
  48. Calcium ion
  49. The I band shorten
  50. ATP 51 lactic acid
  51. lactic acid
  52. 4/5 part
  53. actin
  54. sarcomere.
  55. glycogen
  56. sarcoplasmic reticulum
  57. fatigue.
  58. connective tissue
  59. vertebrates
  60. spicules

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