Choose the best choice for the statements from the multiple choices
1-In animals, structure and function have evolved together. Several results of this evolution are
(a) protection (b) support
(c) movement (d) all of a, b, c.
- Tissues found in our body are derived from
(a) embryonic ectoderm
(b) embryonic endoderm
(c) embryonic mesoderm
(d) all of these.
- Skin in a vertebrate consists of
(a) epidermis (b) dermis (c) both of these (d) cuticle
- In protozoa, the gas exchange and removal of soluble wastes occur by
(a) simple diffusion (b) osmosis (c) active transport (d) all of these.
- The main functions of tegument in
parasitic flukes and tapeworms are
(a) nutrient ingestion
(b) protection against digetion by host enzymes. (c) both a and t
- In taxidermy. the skin is
(b) preserved with the help of chemicals.
(d) used in classification of animals.
- Pelage is the term given to
(a) hairy covering of skin (b) skin only (c) muscles below dermis
(d) Feather’s covering.
8. Integument perform the following functions in animals
(a) protects from chemical and mechanical injuries
(b) protects from injuries by micro organisms
(c) all of a and b
- Epidermis in the mammals is
(a) glandular epithelium (b) compound stratified epithelium
(c) sensory epithelium (d) simple squamous epithelium.
10. The skeleton of the anthropods is composed of very light waxy substance known as
(a) lignin (b) cuticle (c) chitin (d) tegument
11. The skin layer, consisting of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, and nerve ending, separate the skin from deeper tissues is
(a) epidermis (b) endodermis (c) dermis (d) hypodermis
12. Denticles in sharks contain blood vessels and nerves, and are similar to
(a) vertebrate teeth (b) vertebrate skin (c) vertebrate bone
(d) non of these.
13. In Arthropods, epidermis secretes a complex culticle of two zones. The thicker inner zone is called
(a) epicuticle (b) procuticle (c) hypocuticle. (d) endocuticle.
14 Hard chitinous exoskeleton is found in the animals of the phylum
(a) Annelids (b) Arthropoda (c) Mollusca (d) Cnidaria
15. Exoskeleton in cockroach is made tip of
(a) calcified cartilage (b) chitin (c) pseudochitin (d) CaCO3
16-Moulting or ecdysis is a necessary phenomenon in insects because it is responsible for
(a) GROWTH (b) breeding (c) feeding (d) excretion.
17 We would describe the layered, flat, scaly epithelium of human skin as
(a) simple squamous (b) stratified squamous
(c) stratified columnar (d) pseudostratified cuboidal
`8- Which of the following structures or substances is incorrectly paired with a tissue?
(a) Haversian system – bone.
(b) Chondroin sulfate – cartilage
(c) fibroblasts – skeletal muscle.
(d) basement membrane – epithelium.
19-Which part of skin prevents dehydration and is a first line of defense against many toxic substances and microorganisms.
(a) stratum corneum (b) stratum germinativum
(c) basement membrane (d) collagen fibers.
20-In the process of tanning, the
(a) epidermis is treated with salts of heavy metals.
(b) dermis is treated with salts of heavy metals.
(c) both are treated with salts of heavy metals.
(d) both of them are treated with acids of heavy metals.
21-The skin lets in some necessary rays from sun that convert a chemical in the skin into
(a) Vitamin E (b) Vitamin K (c) Vitamin D (d) all of these
22-Which of the following glands in skin are responsible for temperature regulation
(a) cutaneous glands (b) mucous glands.
(c) sudoriferous glands. (d) sebaceous glands.
23. Temperature regulation in animals involves
(a) increase in temperature according to environmental temperature
(b) decrease in body temperature according to environmental temperature.
(c) increase or decrease in body temperature with rise or fall in environmental temperature
(d) maintenance of a constant body temperature in all conditions.
24 Excessive sweating or perspiration in mammals helps mainly in
(a) getting rid of excess water from body
(b) maintaining body temperature at a constant level by losing heat.
(c) elimination of nitrogenous waste matter.
(d) elimination of excess of salts from the body.
25 Nails, hoofs and horns are examples of
(a) bone (b) cartilage (c) connective tissue. (d) keratinized derivatives.
26. Hairs in mammals are derivatives of
(a) dermis (b) epidermis (c) mesodermis (d) endodermis.
27. The body colour in mammals is determined by
(a) melanin and melanoid pigments (b) carotene (c) haemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin (d) all of these
- strata of epidermis In which of the of mammals the pigment carotene is found
(a) stratum corneum (b) stratum Malpighi
(c) stratum lucidum (d) none of these
29. Which of the following pigment is present throughout the mammalian epidermis?
(a) melanin (b) melanoid
(c haemoglobin (d) oxyhaemoglobin
30. Which sets of characters will be more useful to the animal when outside temperature is considerably higher than body temperature.
(a) skirismooth covered with oil (b) skin dark, covered with feathers
(c) skin rough, with scales (d) skin soft, with abundant sweat glands.
31. Sweat glands in mammals are concerned primarily with
(a) osmoregulation (b) rendering skin water proof
(c) regulation of body temperature (d) removal of excess salt from body.
32. Secretion of sabaceous glands in mammals helps mainly in
(a) regulating body temperature (b) making skin soft and supple.
(c) plugging pores of body to keep body warm.
(d) killing bacteria upon skin.
33. Which of the following helps in keeping warm in cold environment
(a) fatty layer of skin (b) hairs on skin (c) pigment in skin
(d) rich blood supply in skin
34. Dense fur in temperate animals protects them from
(a) snow , (b) air (c) cold (d) heat
35. Capability to change the colour of skin in frog is termed
(a) metamorphosis (b)metachrosis (c) hibernation (d) all of these
36. Colouration in frog and other amphibians is due to
(a) chromatophores (b) irridescence of skin
(c) presence of pigment in epidermal cells(d) presence of pigment in dermis
37. Earthworms move with the help of
(a) setae, muscles and hydrostatic skeleton (b) setae alone
(c) muscles alone. (d) parapodia.
38. A skeleton like function is performed in earthworms during locomotion by
(a) alimentary canal laden with mud. (b) coelomic fluid.
(c) clitellum (d) ventral nerve cord.
39. Skeleton forming cells in sponges are called
(a) scleroblasts (b) cnidoblasts
(c) collencytes (d) desmocytes.
40. Endoskeleton of calcareous plates is found in
(a) star fish (b) house fly (c) pila (d) cockroach
41. Jointed appendages are found in
(a) Annelida (b) Mollusca (c) Adhropoda (d) Echinodermata.
42. The endoskeleton of echinoderms consists of
(a) mineral spicules. (b) ossicles (c) fibers of spongin (d) none of these
43. Which of these is supporting structure in our body
(a) muscles (b) nerves
(c) tendons (d) endoskeleton
44. Axial skeleton in man includes which of these
(a) skull (b) vertebral column
(c) both of these (d) skull, vertebral column and girdles.
45. Skeleton in aquatic animals may be less bulky and less strong than terrestrial animals due to
(a) bouyancy of water. V (b) pressure of water
(c) larger size of land animals (d) presence of limbs in land animals.
46- Appendicular skeleton in vertebrates Consists of
a) skull and vertebral colum (b)girdles and limbs
(c)vertebral column and limbs (d)vertebral column and girdle.
47 In locomotion, movement between two structures of which of the following sets akes part in man
(a) femur and pelvic girdle. (b) humerus and pectoral girdle.
(c) humerus and ulna (d) skull and atlas.
48. In which of these animals both exoskeleton and endoskeleton are found
a)frog b)earthworm c)snake d)all of these.
49-Bone tissue also contains inorganic salts mainly.
a) calcium phosphate b) calcium carbonate
c) both a and b d) calcium suphate
50 pseudopodia in Amoeba help mainly in
a)locomotion b)food capturing c) both a and b d) defence.
51-Just as pseudopodia are found in moeba, there are
a) legs in cockroach b) teeth in rabbit
c) suckers in tape worm d) spicules in sponges.
52-Longitudinal and circular muscles are found,in the body wall of
a)sponges b)cnidarians c)annelids d)all of these
53-Crawling in earthworm occurs by
a)prostomium b)setae c)papilla d)clitellum.
54 Setae are found in
(a) earthworms (b) leechesn (c) Nereis (d) all of these
55. Locomotion in earthworms is directly faciliated by
(a) mucus secreted by epidermis (b) segmentation of body
(c) rhythmic conractions of body segments (d) setae only
56. Pseudopodia of Amoeba are
(a) lobopodia (b) filopodia
(c) axopodia (d) all of these
57. Pseudopodia are formed in Amoeba when
(a) it comes in contact to food particle
(b) it comes in contact with an obstacle
(c) there is exchange of salts with the medium there is increase pressure of cytoplasm.
58. In animals that lack hard skeleton, a fluid filled gastrovascular cavity or coelom can act as
(a) exoskeleton (b) endoskeleton
(c) hydrostatic skeleton (d) axial skeleton.
59. Joints occur where
(a) muscles meet (b) bones meet
(c) cartilage meet (d) veins meet
60 -Which of these is a direct source cf energy for muscle contraction.?
(a) ATP (b) creatine phosphate
(c) lactic acid (d) glucose
61 Muscular contraction involves which of these
(a) biochemical events (b) biophysical events
(c) both of these events. (d) none of these events.
62. When muscle contracts
(a) sarcomere increase in size (b) myosin slides past actin
(c) lactic acid is produced (d) both a and b
63. Muscle fatigue is caused by
(a) CO2 (b) lactic acid
(c) fumaric acid (d) ethyl alcohol.
64 Besides ATP the other sources for providing energy for muscular contraction are
(a) breakdown of creatine phosphate (b) myokinase activity
(c) both of these (d) none of these
65 During recovery phase of muscle contraction the processes occurring are
(a) breakdown of lactic acid formed during contraction phase.
(b) resynthesis of creatine phosphate.
(c) resynthesis of ATP (d) all of these.
66 Which of these structures over myosin help in contraction of the muscle fibre.
(a) cross bridge over spur. (b) tropomyosin protein.
(c) both of these. (d) none of these.
67. During muscle contraction
(a) actomyosin contracts so that cross bridges tilt dragging filaments of actin towards H zone.
(b) only myosin contracts pulling actin filaments towards H zone.
(c) both of these processes occur simultaneously
(d) none of these processes occur.
68. Cross bridges are found on
(a) actin (b) myosin
(c) troponin (d) tropomyosin
69. Which of these are released before muscle contraction from sarcoplasmic reticulum.
(a) calcium ions (b) magnesium ions
(c) potassium ions (d) none of these.
70. Which of these processes mark the beginning of muscular contraction.
(a) release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum.
(b) withdrawl of calcium ions into sarcoplasmic reticulum.
(c) both of these processes. (d) none of these processes.
71 The contraction of a muscles is caused by
(a) actin (b) myosin (c) actomyosin (d) ATP
72. Muscles are fatigued by accumulation of
(a) myosin ATP as (b) carbondioxide
(c) lactic acid (d) none of these
73 When a muscle is repeatedly stimulated during its contraction period without permitting relaxation for a very long time It does not relax. This stage is called
(a) tetany (b) fatigue
(b) treppe (c) none of these
74 The cause of muscular tetany is
(a) infection of tetanus bacillus.
(b) deficiency of parathyroid hormone.
(c) excess of sodium ions in sarcoplasm.
(d) none of these.
75. Which of these are examples of antagonistic muscles in our body
(a) biceps and triceps (b) adductors and abductors
(c) pronators and suppinators (d) all of these.
76 The integument of most multicellular invertebrates consists of a
(a) multilayer of cells (b) layer called the skin
(c) complex of a variety of chemicals, fibres, cellulose, or chitin
(d) single layer of cells.
77. Animals have three types of skeletons. Which of the following is not one of the three types?
(a) fluid hydrostatic (b) rigid exoskeleton
(c) fluid exoskeleton (d) rigid endoskeleton
78. The supportive tissue in the vertebrate skeleton consists of
(a) cartilage (b) bone
(c) muscle (d) both a and b
79 The outer protein coat of many protozoans is called the
(a) tegument (b) pellicle
(c) epidermis (d) dermis
80. The outer layer of flukes and tapeworms is the
(a) tegument (b) pellicle
(c) epidermis (d) dermis
81. The vertebrate integument is the
(a) epidermis (b) dermis
(c) skin (d) hypodermis
82. The skin that is multilayered and
contains mucous and sensory cells, and placoid scales called denticles is the skin of
(a)bony fishes (b)cartilagenous fishes
(c) jawless fishes (d)reptiles
83. What type of skeleton would you find in an arthropod?
(a) fluid hydrostatic (b) rigid exoskeleton
(c) rigid endoskeleton (d) all of the above (a — c)
84 The notable feature of mammalian skin is/are
(b) greater variety of epidermal glands than in any vertebrae group
(c) a highly stratified cornified epidermis
(d) all of the above (a — c)
85 Modification of epidermis in mammalian skin include
(a) hair (b) nails (c) horns (d) all of the above (a — c)
86-Carthage (a supportive tissue), makes up the major skeletal component in all of the following except
(a) gastropods (b) lawless fishes
(c) rays (d) sharks
87-With the exception of ________ locomotor cilia and flagella occur in every animal phyla
(a) protozoa (b) molluscs
(c) arthropods (d) aschelminths
88 The predominent muscle type in many invertebrates is
(a) skeletal (b) smooth
(c) cardiac (d) both a and b
89 Flatworms, some cnidarians, and the gastropod molluscs move by means of waves of activity in the muscular system that are applied to the substrate. This type of movement is called
(a) pedal locomotion
(b) looping locomotion
(c) water-vascular locomotion
90 Looping movements are observed in
(a) earthworms (b) polychaetes
(c) echinoderms (d) leeches
91 The functional unit in a skeletal muscle is called
(a) actin filament (b) sarcomere
(c) Z line (d) myosin filament
92 The snout of crocodiles is
(a) rounded at the tip
(b) tapers forward from the eyes
(c) pointed at the tip
93. When the mouth is closed, the fourth bottom tooth on each side of the lower jaw is exposed in
(a) crocodiles (b) alligators
(c) in both a and b
Write the precise answer of the statement in the blank space
provided against each statement.
1. In Paramecium, the thick protein coat outside the plasma membrane is called __________.
- he organs for locomotion in Paramecium are________
- he non cellular protective, organic layer secreted by the epithelium of many invertebrates is called_________
- The process in which there is a periodic shedding off of the old, outgrown cuticle in some invertebrates, such as arthropods is known as_______
- The complex syncytium on outer covering of parasitic flukes and tape worms is known as
- The largest organ with respect to surface area in the vertebrate body is the_________.
- In cartilagenous fishes the dermis contains bone in the form of small placoid scales called_______
- In arthropods the outer zone of cuticle, lying on he external surface above the procutilcle is the_______
- The process of deposition of calcium carbonate in outer layers of procuticle in decapod crustaceans is known as_______
- The process in insects in which hardening of procuticle occurs when protein molecules bond together with stabilizing cross linkages within an adjacent lamellae is called as ______
- The epidermal glands embedded in the dermis of some amphibians that produce a toxic fluid are called_______
- The nerves that penetrate the epidermis as free nerve endings are called as____________.
- The only epidermal gland is birds is the ______the tough, water resistant protein found in the epidermal layers of the skin of reptiles, birds, and mammals is the_______
- The name of the outer skin layer, that is made of keratinized cells is the________
- The thickest portion of the mammalian skin that contains blood vessels, lymphatic
- vessels, nerves, hair follicles, small muscles, and glands is the______
- The tissue which stores energy in the form of fat and provide insulation in cold environment is the_______18 The melanin is generally present in the mammalian skin in stratum__________19 The process of secreting the sweat from sweat glands is known as________20 The chemical secreted in some mammals by sweat glands that communicates with other members of the same species to elicit certain behavioural responses is known as_______21 The glands in the dermis connected to hair follides are the________
22 The oily secretion secreted from the sebaceous glands is the_________
23 The action in humans by which arrector pili muscles contract and keep hair to an errect position is called as_______
24 The elastic protein found in some arthropod’s joints that stores energy and functions in jumping is the_______ •
25 The specialized type of connective tissue that provide a point of attachment for muscles and transmits the force of muscular contractions is called_______
26 Spongy bone is lattice like rather than________
27 The specialized connective tissue that provide a point of attachment for muscles and transmits the force of muscular contraction is the______
28-The connective tissue layer that surrounds the joins is the__________
29 Name the matrix of protein in which both bone cells and cartilage cells are embedded_______
30 Which group of vertebrates do not have a well-defined vertebral column_________
31 Name the most swift type of locomotion in mammals.
32. The living cells of cartilage are called________
33. What is the function of intervertabral discs in the vertebral column_______
34. Name the locomotory organs of molluscs_______
35. Name the membrane enclosing each muscle________
36. In animals extensor muscle works in opposite direction (is antagonistic) than which muscle?_______
37. Name the hormone which controls molting in insects_______
38 Which biomolecule is stored as reserve food in muscle cells?________
39 How many vertebrae are there in the cervical region of most mammals?_________
40 To which regulatory protein, calcium binds in muscle cells?________
41 Name the substance which forms exoskeleton of cockroach_______
42-In which group of invertebrates motile cilia are absent?
43-The flight muscles of insects are called_______
44-Name the type of locomotion exhibited by flatworms, some cnidarians, and the gastropod molluscs______
45 What type of locomotion is exhibited by leeches?_______
46. Name the unique means of locomotion in echinoderms_______
47 The thin filaments in myofibrils are chemically_______
48. The contraction of striated muscles is initiate by the release of energy in the presence of______
49. What part of sarcomere shortens when skeletal muscle contracts?_______
50. The energy required for muscle contraction is derived from_______
51 Which substance on accumulation causes muscular fatigue?_______
52. How much lactic acid formed is resynthesized into glycogen?______
53-The myosin cross band attaches to which protein to undergo a power stroke____________.
54-Name the functional unit of contractile system in a striped muscle______
55 Name the chief source of energy for muscle contraction______
56 What is the name used for endoplasmic reticulum in a muscle cell ______
57 In what condition the muscle offers no contraction?_______
58 The power behind the muscular movements in both invertebrates and vertebrates is___________
59-In which group of animals familiar endoskeletons, both cartilagenous and bony, first appeared?________
60-The endoskeleton of sponges consist of______
- Molting or ecdysis.
- poison gland.
- Sensory nerves.
- uropygial or preen glano
- stratum corneum
- Adipose tissue.
- Sebaceous glands
- goose bump
- Osseous tissue.
- fibrous capsule
- jawles fishes
- chitinous cuticle
- Asynchronous muscles.
- Pedal locomotion.
- looping movement.
- water-vescular system.
- Actin, tropomyosin, troponin.
- Calcium ion
- The I band shorten
- ATP 51 lactic acid
- lactic acid
- 4/5 part
- sarcoplasmic reticulum
- connective tissue