OBJECTIVES

Multiple Choice Questions MCQs

Four options are given at the end of each statement. You should encircle one option from them.

Which of the following compound is’absent in plasma membrane?

(a) Proteins (b) Carbohydrates (c) Cholesterol                      (d) wax
The word mosaic is used for:

(a) Proteins (b) Carbohydrates (c) Cholesterol                      (d) Lipids
Hydrophilic end of lipid molecules has:

(a) Fatty acids (b) Cholesterol            (c) Phosphate –           (d) Protein
The tail of lipid molecules has:

(a) Fatty acids (b) Cholesterol            (c) Phosphate             (d) Protein

The molecule which stabilized the structure of plasma membrane is:

(a) Fatty acids (b) Protein                   (c) Cholesterol        – (d) Phosphate
Which of the following acts as finger print of the cell?

(a) Fatty acids (b) Glycocalyx            (c) Phosphate             (d) Protein
Sodium potassium pump is present in the cells:

(a) Muscles (b) Glands                       (c) Nerves                   (d) None
The ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called:

(a) Vesicles (b) Channels                    (c) Cisternae               (d) vacuoles
Muscle contraction is stimulated by:

(a) SER           (b) Golgi body             (c) RER                       (d) None

10. The membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules are:

(a) ER              (b) Lysosomes            (6) Golgi body             (d) Vacuoles

11. Microtubules are made up of protein:

(a) Actin            (b) Tublin                     (c) Histone                  (d) Myosin

12. Microfilaments are made up of protein:

(a) Actin            (b) Tublin                     (c) Histone                  (d) Myosin

13. The diameter of intermediate filament is:

(a) 4 to 10 nm(b) 8 to 12-nm                (c) 10 to 14 nm           (d) 12 to 16 nm

14. Axonemes of microtubules consists of number of microtubules:

(a) 7                  (b) 8                             (c) 9                             (d) 10

  1. The arms projects towards the neighboring doublets in cilia is:

(a) Dynein        (b) Spoke                    (c) Filaments          , (d) Sheath

16. Which of the followings are not connective tissues?

(b) bone            (b) Blood                     (c) Tendon                  (d) Nerves

  1. Intercalated discs are preset in:

(a) Cardiac (b) Skeletal                        (c) Smooth                  (d) None

An :

1. ( ) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9 (c) 10. (b)11. (b) 12. a)13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (a) 16. (d) 17. (c)

Fill in the blanks

  1. S. Jonathan Singer and________________________ proposed the fluid‑
    mosaic model of membrane structure in 1972.
  2. The word is _________________ used for many different kinds of proteins.
  3. The______________ spherical “heads” are located over the cell surfaces.
  4. The______________________ molecules stabilize the membrane.
  5. proteins are attached to the inner or outer membrane surface.
  6. proteins are embedded in the lipids bilayer.
  7. Surface carbohydrates and portions of the proteins and lipids make up the

glycocalyx or________________

  1. A molecuit. temporarily binds with a _________________________ in the plasma
    membrane.
  2. The relative cc.tentration of solutes in the water inside and outside the cell

is called _______

  1. The movement of substance inside the cell by infolding of the membrane

and formation of vacuole is called _____________

  1. The nonspecific uptake of all droplets of extracellular fluid is called _______________
    1. The uptake of solid particles by invagination is called _______________
    2. Lysosome combines with the food vacuole to form a ______________
    3. The removal of cell secreons from the cells by out folding is called _______________
    1. The ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called _______________
      1. Liver stores carbohydrate in the form of______________
      2. The trans face of the ribosome budded of as_______________ vesicle.
      3. ____________________ is a membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes that
        the cell uses to digest macromolecules.
      4. Excessive leakage from a large number of lysosomes can destroy a cell by
        1. Amoeba and many other protozoa engulf smaller organisms or other food

        particles by___________________

        1. The __________________________ is a network of fibers suspended through the
          cytoplasm.
        2. Nucleoli are present at nucleolar ________________
        3. The Sheets of tightly packed cells are called _________________ tissues.
        4. The tissue with loose arrangement of cells and the cells are scattered in an

        extracellular matrix are called _________________ tissue.

        1. The group of different tissues performing same function is called_________________26       Many of the organs of vertebrates are suspended by_________________

        Capture

      Short Questions:

      1. Give chemical composition of plasma membrane.

      An.: Plasma membrane is composed of: Protein: 60 to 80%, Phospholipids: 20 to 40 %, Cholesterol in small amount and Carbohydrates in small amount.

      1. How can you compare the plasma membrane with sea?

      An.: The phospholipids bilayer forms a fluid “sea”. The proteins float in this sea like iceberg.

    What is the function of cholesterol molecule in the plasma membrane?
    An: They make the membrane less permeable for water-soluble .substances.

    .Cholesterol molecules make the membrane rigid structure. Thus the cholesterol molecules stabilize the membrane.

  2. What are the functions of intrinsic proteins?

An-: Some intrinsic proteins are Links to sugar-protein markers on the cell

surface. Some intrinsic proteins move ions or molecules across the membrane. Some attach the membrane to the cell’s inner the cytoskeleton or to various molecules outside the cell.

  1. What is meant by finger print of cell?

An        The glycocalyx shows complex arrangement. They have distinctively shaped groups of sugar molecules. These sugar molecules act as a molecular “fingerprint”. The glycocalyx are necessary for tho recognition of cell.

  1. What is the function of glycocalyx?

Ans The glycocalyx are necessary for the recognition of cell. So they control the behaviour .of certain cells. Therefore, they are key component in coordinating cell behaviour in animals.

  1. Write two functions of plasma membrane.

Ans It separates the inside of the cell from the outside. It separates various organelles within the cell:

  1. Define homeostasis.
  2. Ans: The maintenance of a constant internal environment despite fluctuations in the external environment is called homoeostasis.
    1. Differentiate between simple diffusionrand facilitated diffusion.

    Ans: The movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration is called simple diffusion. The movement of molecules through the protein molecules from higher to lower concentration is called facilitated diffusion.

    1. ,What is isotonic solution?

    Ans: In this case the solute concentration is the same inside an outside the cell For example, a red blood cell. The concentration of water molecules is also the same inside and outside the cell.

    1. What is crenation?

    Ans: Thus concentration of water molecules inside the cell is higher than outside. So water moves out of the cell. The cell gets shrink This condition is called crenation in red blood cells.

    . 12.      What are filtrations?

    Ans: Filtration is a process that forces small molecules across selectively permeable membranes with the help of hydrostatic pressure.

    1. What is sodium potassium pump?

    Ans: Sodium potassium pump is present in the neuron cells. It helps to maintain the high concentrations of potassium ions and low concentrations of sodium ions inside nerve cells. This transport of ions is necessary for the transmission of electrical impulses.


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    1. Differentiate between pinocytosis and phagocytosis.

    Ans: The nonspecific uptake of all droplets of extracellular fluid is called pinocytosis. The uptake of solid particles by invagination is called phagocytosis.

    1. What- are phagolysosome?

    Ans: Lysosome combines with the food vacuole to form a phagolysosome.

    1. What is receptor mediated endocytosis?

    Ans: Some specific receptor proteins are present on the plasma membrane. These pwteins recognize an extracellular molecule and binds with it. This reaction stimulates the membrane to invaginates and create a vesicle.

    1. What are the components of cytoplasm?

    Ans: Cytoplasm has two components. The Cytomembrane system consists of well-defined structures, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus. vacuoles, and vesicles. The fluid cytosol suspends the structures of the cytomembrane system. It also contains various dissolved molecules.

    1. What are free ribosomes? Give their functions.

    Ans: They are suspended in the cytoplasm. Most of proteins synthesized by the free ribosomes will function within the cytosol. The free ribosomes are

  3. abundant in the cells growing by the addition of cytoplasm.

    Give functions of cytoplasm.

    The ribosome plays a key role in translating the genetic message. This

    genetic message is carried by mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

    This message is translated in • the ribosomes. It forms specific primary

    structure (amino acid sequence) of a polypeptide chain.

    How are drug detoxified in SER?

    The enzymes of the smooth ER detoxify the drugs and other poisons in

    liver cells. Hydroxyl group is added during detoxification. It increases .their

    Differentiate between cis and trans faces of Golgi apparatus.

    The cis face is located near ER. The trans face (or maturing face). The

    trans end acts as the receiving and shipping departments of the Golgi

    What is autophagy?

    Lysosomes also use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the Organic

    material of cells. This process is called autophagy.

    What is Pompe’s Disease?

    In Pompe’s disease a lysosomal enzyme needed to break down the

    polysaccharide is absent. Therefore, the liver is damaged by the

    accumulation of glycogen.

    What is mitochondria! matrix?

    The mitochondrial matrix is generally homogenous fluid. But sometimes it

    contains dense granules. These granules contain phospholipids. The

    mitochondrial matrix also contains a circular DNA and ribosomes.

    What is basal body?

    Flagella or cilia come out of basal body, Basal body is present in the

    cytoplasm. It is composed of microtubules. Its structure is similar to

    centrioles. The basal body controls the growth of microtubules in cilia and

    flagella. The microtubules in the basal body form a 9 + 0 pattern.

    What are microtubule-organizing centers?

    The specialized non membranous regions of cytoplasm near the nucleus

    are the microtulaule-organizing centers.

    Give two functions of vacuoles.

    They form food by phagocytosis. Many freshwater protists have contractile

    vacuoles. These vacuoles pump excess water out of cell.

    What are epithelial tissues?

    The sheets of tightly packed cells are called epithelial tissues. Epithelial

    tissue covers the outside of the body. They lines organs and cavities

    within the body. The cells of an epithelium are closely joined.

    Differentiate between Simple epithelium and Stratified epithelium?

  4. Ans: A simple epithelium has a single layer of cells. Stratified epithelium has multiple tiers of cells.
    1. What are pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium? Give their

    location and function.                                                   •

    Ans: A tuft of cilia is present at the top of each columnar cell, except for goblet cells. Location: Lines the bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus. Function: Propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action.

    1. Define connective tissues.

    Ans: The tissue with loose arrangement of cells and the cells are scattered in an extracellular matrix are called connective tissue.

    True/ False                  (For Punjab University only)

    Marks are True or False statement. Give correct statement if false

    Statement

    1. The sheets of tightly packed cells are called epithelial organ.
    2. Lysosome is a membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes
    3. The relative concentration of solutes in the water inside and outside the cell
      is called tonicity.
    4. The nonspecific uptake of all droplets of extracellular fluid is called phagocytosis.
    5. The glycocalyx are necessary for the recognition of cell.
    6. The maintenance of a constant internal environment despite fluctuations in
      the external environment is called excretion.
    7. Sodium potassium pump is present in the muscles cells.
    8. In Pompe’s disease a lysosomal enzyme needed to break down the polysaccharide is absent.
    9. The sheets of tightly packed cells are called epithelial tissues.
    10. Flagella or cilia come out of basal body.
    11. Stratified epithelium has single tier of cells.
    12. The microtubules in the basal body form a 9 + 0 pattern.
    13. Some intrinsic proteins are Links to sugar-protein markers.

    Ans:

     

    Statement T/F Correct Statement
    1. The sheets of tightly packed cells are
      called epithelial organ.
    F The sheets of tightly packed cells are called

    epithelial tissue.                        ,

    1. Lysosome is a membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes
    T  
    1. The relative concentration of solutes in
      the water inside and outside the cell is
    T  

     

     

    called tonicity    
    1. Tie nonspecific uptake of all droplets ol extracellular fluid is called phagocytosis.
    F The nonspecific.uptake of
    all droplets of extracellular
    fluid is called pinocytosis.
    1. The glycocalyx are necessary for the recognition of cell.
    T  
    1. The maintenance of a constant internal environment despite fluctuations in the external environment is called excretion. •
    F The maintenance of a constant internal environment despite fluctuations in the external environment is called homoeostasis.
    1. Sodium potassium pump is present in the muscles cells.
    F Sodium potassium pump is present in the neuron cells.
    1. In Pompe’s disease a lysosomal enzyme needed to break down the polysaccharide is absent.
    T  
    1. The sheets of tightly packed cells are

    celled epithelial tissues.      –

    T  
    1. Flagella or cilia come out of basal ocidy.
    T  
    1. Stratified epithelium has single tier of cells.
    T Stratified epithelium has multiple tiers of cells.
    12.1* microtubules in the basal body ib m a 9 + 0 pattern T  
    13. Some intrinsic proteins are Links to sugar-protein markers T  

     

 

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