The assignment of a distinctive name to each species is called nomenclature.
Problems with common names
Common names have two problems:
I. First, common names vary from country to country. Even they vary from region to region within a country. Some species have hundreds of different common names. Botany is studied all over the word by all the nations. Therefore, there must be some system of naming of the organisms.
2. Second, many common names are used for taxonomic categories higher than the species level. For example rose is a genus. It has many species. Thus common name does not provide information about the specie.
System of binomial Nomenclature
Therefore, the system of binomial nomenclature was adapted. This system was given by Carlous Linnaeus (1707-1773). This system is based on giving every plant two names. The binomial system of nomenclature has organized the naming system of the plants. These names are given in Latin. Therefore, the binomial system of nomenclature is universal. It clearly indicates the level of classification involved in any description. No two kinds of plants have the same binomial name. Every animal has only one correct name.
This name is given by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBM. Therefore, it avoids the confusion that common names cause.
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) There are following rules of ICBN:
1.The frst name is name of genus. The genus of an animal begins
with capital letter. The geniis name is generally a noun. It indices some prominent character of that genus or it is based on rititm. If some eminent person. Or this name may be
continuea was present before the presence of Linnaeus. There should 1P,ff nab one name for each genus. It should not be duplicated fo some other genus.
2.The second r ame is specie name. The specie name begins with a small letter. The specie name is mostly adjective. It is generally based on some characters of the plant or on the locality form where it was discovered. It may be named on the name of some eminent scientist. If the specie is named on the locality or some scientist, it may begin with capital letter.
3.These names are derived from Latin or Latinized. Therefore, the entire scientific name is italicized or underlined. For example, the scientific name of potato is written as Solanum Mberusum. Similarly, the scientific name of tomato is Lytopersieum esettlentum.
4.When the genus is understood, the binomial name can be abbreviated as S. tubersum.
5.A scientific name is reserved for each type of plant. If by misconception or error the same type of plant is gheen another scientific name. Then the valid name is older one. It is retained. The new name is discarded and becomes the synonym. This rejection of the name in favour of the valid name is known as the Principle of Priority. This principle is also applied according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
6.A name is not valid unless it has been published in some scientific journal.
7.Whenever a nev. plant is discovered it is described as a new species. Its description tin Latin) is published in a scientific journal a flit the nalliC v. ;licit has been given to this species. This descripiion cr the new species also includes the date on which this piaat was collected. It also includes the locality from where it was ei)led. the place or herbarium where this new plant has been deposited as a 1y pc specimen is also given.
8.The person who first describes a new species and gives it a name becomes the authority for that specie. The name of that species is always followed by his full name or the standardized . abbreviation of his name. For example, Solanum ntelangena Linn. It is the scientific name of Firinjal. It shows that this name has been assigned by Linnaeus.
9.Sometimes, the original !mine of the specie is changed due to its transfer to another genus or due to a change in its rank. Then this new name is followed.by the abbreviation of first author’s name. It is then followed by the name of the person Making the change. For example. Lyeopersieunt eseuletuum (Linn.) Mill.
10.The specimen on which a new species is based is preserved as the type specimen of that specie. Whenever a person describes a new species he indicates the plant on which this description is based and where it has been deposited as the type specimen. Similarly the species on which a new genus is based becomes the type specie at genus. Similarly, the genus on which a new family is based becomes type genus of that family.
11.The specimens are preserved by following rules.
Holotype: The original type specimen of a species which has been indicated by the author is known as holotype.
Lectotype: Sometimes. original author has not indicated any specific plant as the type specimen. Then a competent person selects a plant from the material originally studied by the author of that species. This selected type specimen is known as lectotype.
- Neotype: Sometime, the orininal material studied by the author is missing. Theila competent research worker selects a specimen as type specimen. This specimen is known as the nentype.
- Isotypes: Sometimes. the author has other specimens other than the holotype in his collection. ‘these all other specimen of same species are known as the isotypes.
- Paratypes: The specimens which hme been referred by the author as similar to the ty pc specimen are known as paratypes.
- Syntypes: Sometimes. more than one specimens have been designated by the author as type specimens. Now one of those specimens becomes the holotype while other ones are known as the syntypes.