||greater than it inside.
||Hydrostatic pressure forces small
molecules across selectively
permeable membranes from areas of
higher pressure to areas of lower
|A frog’s blood pressure
forces water and
dissolved wastes into the
kidney tubules during
||Specific carrier proteins in the plasma membrane bind with molecules or ions
to help them cross the membrane against concentration gradient. Energy is required
|Sodium ions move from inside the neurons of the
sciatic nerve of a frog
pump) to the outside of the neurons.
||The bulk movement of material into
the cell by formation of vesicle is
||The plasma membrane encloses small amounts of fluid droplets (in a vesicle) and takes the n into the cell.
||The kidney cells of frog
take in fluid to maintain
||The plasma membrane forms a vesicle around a solid particle or other cell and draws it into the phagocytic cell.
||The white blood cells of a frog engulf and digest – harmful bacteria.
|Receptor- mediated • endocytosis
||Extracellular molecules bind with
specific receptor proteins on a plasma membrane, causing the membrane to
invaginate and draw molecules into
the cell. .
|The intestinal cells of a
frog take up large
molecules from the inside of the gut
||The movement of material out of a
- A vesicle (with particles) fuses
with the plasma membrane and expels particles or fluids from the cell across the plasma membrane.
|The sciatic nerve of a
frog releases a chemical (neurotransmitter)