MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF FRUITS

The ripend overy containing seeds is called fruit. some fruits are without seeds for example banana. These fruits are called parthencarpic.

A. Simple Fruits

The fruits formed from a single flower with gynoecium monocarpellary or polycatpillary and syncarpous is called simple fruit. The simple fruit may be dry or fleshy. (succulent).

Simple dry fruits

It has three types: Achenial fruits. capsular fruit and shizocarpic .The ripened ovary containing seeds is called fruit. Some fruits are iseeds e.g. banana. pineapples. These fruits are called parthencarpic. The fruit formed Iron only ovary is called true fruit. Some other parts of the flm‘er like thalamus, calyx also takes part in the formation of fruits like apple. Such fruits are called pesudocarp. The outer wall of the fruit is known as pericarp. The pericarp may . he fleshy and juicy or, hard, and dry The fruits are classified into three categories: simple fruits, aggregate fruit’s and composite fruits.

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(a) Achenial fruits

The dry, one seeded and indehiscent fruit is called achenial fruit. Their pericarp and testa does not rupture when they fall on ground. The pericarp and testa rupture only during germination. There are following types of achenial fruits:

I. Achene: The achenial fruit in which pericarp is membranous or leathery and free from seed coat or testa is called achene. Achene is derived from monocarpellan pistil. Achenes occur in groups to form aggregate fruits. Example: Buttercup

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2. Caryopsis: The achenial fruit in which pericarp and testa are fused is called achenial fruit. It is the characteristic fruit ofgrasses like wheat, rice etc.

3. Nut: The achenial fruit in which hard and woody pericarp forms the shell is called nut. Nut may be partially or completely surrounded by a hard structure called cupule. Cupule is formed by the fusion of bracteoles. It is the Characteristic fruit of the oak lichi, water chestnut.

  1. Samara: The achenial fruit in which pericarp develops a membranous outgrowth or wing is called samara. This wing helps in the dispersal of fruits by wind. Examples: elms ash.

  2. Cypsela: The achenial fruit develops from bicarpellary syncarpous pistil with an inferior unilocular ovary is called cypsela. In many cases, persistant calyx forms tuft of hairs at the top of the fruit. Examples: Sonchus.

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(b) Capsular fruits

The dry, many seeded anti dehiscent fruit is called capsular fruit. Flick pericarp splits and allows the seeds to escape. There are following types of capsular fruits:

I. Legume: The fruit formed from monocarpellary pistil and dehiscence along both dorsal and ventral sutures is  called legume. It is the characteristic fruit of the family Leguminosae like pea bean etc.

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2. Follicle: The fruit formed from monocarpellary pistil and dehiscence along only one suture is called follicle. Example: Larkspur.

3. Siliqua: A long, cylindrical fruit formed from bicarpellary, syncarpous pistil with ovary having two parietal placentas is called siliqua. The ovary is unilocular at first but it becomes multilocular by the formation of false septum. The two walls of ripened fruit split away from the false septum and forms two placentas. These placentas hang freely from the apex of the fruit. The placenta and septum are collectively knov n as replum. The replum remains attached to the pedicle. It is the characteristic

fruit of the family Crucileme like mustard turnip.

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  1. Silicula: It resembles the siliqua but it is short and as long as broad and contains fewer seeds. Example Candyttift.

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  1. Capsule: The fruit derived from polycarpillary, syncarpous pistil with superior ovary is called capsule. Sometimes it is formed from inferior ovary. Example: Iris, willow. There are different methods of dehiscence of capsule:

(a) By pores: Example: Campanula

 (b) By transverse splitting: Example: Henbane (e) By teeth: Example: pink

 (d) By longitudinal splitting: Example: Datura, Iris

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(c) Shizocarpic fruits

The dry, many seeded fruits which break into a number of one seeded parts on ripening is called shizocarpic fruit. If these one seeded parts are indehiscent. they are called mericarps. If they are dehiscent. they are  called cocci. There are following types of. shizocarpic fruits.

  1.  Lomentum: The legume or pod modified by the formation of false septum and constrictions is called lomentum. It splits transversely at the constrictions. Example: Some Members of leetiminosac like Mimosa. Acacia arahica.
  2. Double Samara: The fruit which breaks up into two mericarps each containing one seed and wings is called double samara. It is derived from a bicarpellary pistil. Example: Maple A samara with three wings is called triple samara.

  3. Cremocarp: The fruit which splits longitudinally between the loculi into two one seeded mericarps which remains attached to central axis carpohore is called cremocarp. It is derived from a bicarpellary. syncarpous pistil with an inferior bilocular ovary. Cremocarp is the characteristic fruit of the Umbelliferae

    like coriander,fennel.

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  1. Carcerulus: The fruit in which pistil has several loculi and each of loculi of ripened fruit separate from each other as mericarps is called carceruluS. This fruit is developed from a hi or polycarpillary. sncarpotis pistil with superior ovary. Formation of false septa divides the original few !midi into several loculi. Example: This fruit is found in family Labiatae(Ocimum Malvaceae (Sonchal). Boraginaceae.


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 5.Regma: The fruit developed from multilocular ovary with each locale having single seed and ripened fruit break up into a number of one seeded dehiscent parts called cocci is called regma. This fruit develops from polycarpillary, syncarpous pistil with superor multilocular ovary. Example:castor oil.

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Simple Succulent fruits

The wall of ovary (pericarp) of ripened succulent or fleshy fruit is composed of three layers. These layers are epicarp (outer wall), mesocarp (middle layer) and endocarp (inner layer). Some of these layers become dry and hard. One or more of them become fleshy and juicy. There are three types of succulent fruits: drupes, berries and pomes

1. Drupes: The succulent fruit in which mesocarp forms the

edible portion of fruit and endocarp forms a hard shell or stone is called drupe. Drupe is derived from monocarpellary pistil with a superior ovary. They are generally one seeded. Their pericarp shows three distinct layers. The outer skin is epicarp. The middle fleshy region is mesocarp and the inner hard layer is endocarp. Examples: Mango. Cherry. Coconut, coconut palm Coconut drupe is also called fibrous drupe. Its epicarri is lost when dry. The fibrous region below the epicarp is mesocarp. The inner hard and stony layer is endocarp. It encloses single. endospermic seed. The white edible portion is endosperm. The endosperm contains a large cavity in the middle which with coconut Milk.

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2. Berries: The indehiscent many seeded fleshy fruit in which mesocarp and endocarp forms pulp is called berries. They arc derived from superior or interior ovaries. The epicarp forms the outer skin: The mesocarp and endocarps are succulent and forms pulp. It has no stony endocarps. Example: Brinjal, Tomato, Grapes, orange, date . red pepper , guava . pomegranate (Jul), Cucumber era water melon melon CucuMiS GO, gourd.

  • Tomato: The epicarp of tomato forms the thin skin. The mesocarp, endocarp and Placenta are all juicy and fleshy.

  • Date: It is one seeded berry. The outer thin skin of the date is epicarp. The pulpy mesocarp is edible: portion. Endocarp forms thin membrane which surrounds the stony seed.

  • Orange: The outer glandular skin is epicarp. The white fibers attached to the inner surface of the skin are mesocarp. The inner membrane forming the walls of the loculi is endocarp. The wall of loculi bears numerous multicellular juicy hairs. This special berry’ in which pulp is separated into a number of compartments is called hesperidium.

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3. Pome: The fruit in which outer skin and edible portion of the fruit are formed from thalamus and carpel develops central cartilaginous core is called pome. The epicarp. mesocarp and endocarps are not differentiated in these fruits. This fruits is derived from a syncarpous pistil with bilocular ovary. Examples: Apple. pear.

Apple: Apple develops from pentacarpillary syncarpous pistil. Its outer skin and fleshy edible pans is derived from thalamus. Thalamus has vascular bundles.carpel forms the central cartiligious part which enclose the seeds.

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B. Aggregate Fruits

The collection of simple fruitless developed from an apocarpous pistil of single flower is called aggregate fruits. The collection of simple fruitless is called etaerio. There are following tpes of etaerio:

I. Etaerin of Achenes: group of achenes is called etaerio of
achenes. It is found in buttercup. strawhern.

2. Etaerio of Follicles: The group of follicles is called etaerio of follicles. Example: Calotropis (Si).

  1. Etaerio of Drupes: The group of drupes is called etaerio of drupes. It is found in blackoerry, raspberry.

  2. Etaerio of Berries: The group of berries is called etaerio of berries. Examples: Sugar apple.

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C. Composite Fruits

The fruit formed from the whole inflorescence is called composite fruit. It has three types: syconus, sorosis, and strobilus.

I. Syconus: The composite fruit formed from a hollow pear shaped hypanthodium inflorescence is called syconus. There is a small opening at the top of hy panthodiurn. It is guarded by scales. The receptacle of the hypanthoditnn becomes fleshy and Forms the edible part of the fruit. The ovaries of the female flowers develop into nutlets. These nutlets are embedded in the wall of receptacle. Examples: Peepal Banyan.

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2. Soros’s: The composite fruit derived from a female spike is called sorosis. It is found in mulberry pineapple and Jack-fruit. In mulberry, the perianth leaves become fleshy and juicy. They fuse to form a fleshy composite fruit. In pineapple. the fleshy perianth leaves of the female flowers fuse together to . form the composite edible fruit.

    3. Strobilus: The composite fruit develop from a cone like female inflorescence is called strobilus. It is found in hops. This inflorescence consists of a central axis bearing number of membranous scales. The female flowers are enclosed in membranous bracteoles. The true fruits are achenes. They are enclosed in the bracteoles and scales.

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