Genetic Engineering or Genetic modification (GM)

The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism’s normal reproductive process is called genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM) or gene splicing.

It involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into cells or model organisms. Therefore. proteins are expressed outside the body of organism. The aim is to introduce new characteristics into organisms physiologically or physical!). Genetic engineering is used to:

  1. Make a crop resistant to herbicide.
  2. Introducing a novel trait.
  3. Producing a new protein or enzyme.

Its examples are production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria. Production of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster Ovary!cells. The production of 11CW, types of experimental mice such as the OncoMouse (cancer mouse) for research. through genetic redesign.

A protein is specified by a segment of DNA called a gene. This protein can be modified by changing the gene’s DNA. One say to do this is to isolate the piece of DNA containing the gene, precisely cut the gene out. Then reintroduce (splice) the gene into a different DNA segment. Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases. These enzymes are able to cut DNA at specific sites. They also discovered ligase, which can join fragments of DNA together. The restriction enzymes formed the initial basis of recombinant DNA technology.


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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

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