A population of plants that differ consistently from the typical form of the species, occurring naturally in a geographical area is called plant variety. In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). The term is also applied incorrectly to forms produced in cultivation, which are called cultivars. A variety is indicated by a third Latin word (sometimes set off by the roman abbreviation “var.–). It follows the two-word term that indicates the genus and species. For example, Coameaver adpressus var. praecox. It is a more vigorous form of creeping cotoneaster than the normal one. Many plants that were considered varieties are garden plants. They are now considered as cultivars.
Farmers and growers need plants which are adapted to the environment in which they are grown and which are suited to the cultivation practices employed. Therefore. farmers and growers use a more precisely defined group of plants, selected from within a species, called a “plant variety the UPOV Convention’s definition of a plant variety starts by stating that it is “a plant grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank.
Example: The pincushion cactus. Escobctria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada to Mexico. and found throughout New Mexico below about 2600 m. Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they integrade. the variety Escoharia dripara var. arizonica is from Arizona. vs hi le Escoharia vivipara var. neomexicana is from New Mexico.
A “plant variety” is a legal term. following the UPOV Convention. Recognition of a cultivated plan( as a “variety” (in this sense) pros ides its breeder with some legal protection, It is called plant breeders’ rights, depending to some extent on the internal legislation of the signatory. countries.
Note that this “variety” (which will differ in status according to the local law, oldie land) should not be confused with the international:
- Rank or ‘variety (regulated bs the IC BY)
- Cultivar (regulated by the IC.VCM.
Importance of new varieties
1-New varieties of plants has e improved yields. higher quality or better resistance to pests and diseases.
2-These varieties increase product’s its in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. But they have imposed minimum pressure on the environment. The tremendous progress in agricultural product is its in sarious parts of the world is largely based on . improsed plant varieties
- The development of new improved varieties with higher qualities
increases the value and marketability or crops. In addition. breeding programs for ornamental plants can he of substantial economic importance for an exporting country.
4- The breeding and exploitation of new sarieties is an important
factor in improving rural income and overall economic development.
5. Furthermore, the development of breeding programs for certain endangered species (like some medicinal plants) can remove the threat to their survival out in nature.