The environment includes other organism and non-living factors, The environment is composed of two parts biotic components and abiotic components.

Biotic components

The living components are called biotic components. They are following biotic

  1.  Producers
  1. Consumer
  2. Decomposers

Abiotic components

The non-living factors are called abiotic components. The non living factors includes, light, water, wind, soil, fire, temperature etc. Life does not exist in a vacuum.

Each organism interacts continuously with its environment. The roots of a tree absorb water and minerals from the soil, and the leaves Ike in carbon dioxide from the air. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight. It drives photosynthesis. It converts water and carbon dioxide to sugar and oxygen. The tree releases oxygen in the air. Their roots break up rocks into smaller particles. Roots also secret acid and absorb minerals. It changes the soil. Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction between them. The tree also interacts with other life, including soil microorganisms associated with its roots and animals that eat its leaves and fruit.

The interactions between organisms and their environment form an ecosystem Two major processes take place in an ecosystem:

Recycling of nutrients              .

The plants acquire minerals from soil. These minerals acquired by plants wil eventually be returned to the soil by microorganisms. These microorganism! decompose leaf litter, dead roots, and other organic debris.

Flow of energy

The second major process in an ecosystem is a flow of energy from sunlight tcphotosynthetic life (producers) to organisms that feed on plants (consumers) The process of organisms interacting with their environment is essential to understanding life on all levels of organization.


World resources

All the resources necessary for life are part of natural cycles. The driving force behind all of these cycles is the sun. The earth is a self sustained unit. We are in our own space ship. There are no chances of addition of more resources. So we have to use these resources wisely.

These resources may be renewable or non renewable:

Von-renewable resources

these resources are exhaustible. They once consumed cannot be replaced. gone-renewable resources include various metals, non-metallic minerals and rossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)

renewable Resources

rhe resources which are never depleted and are recycled in the nature igain and again are called renewable resources. Thus renewable resources :an be used again and again._ Air, water, food, land, forests and wild life are enewable resources. A natural cycle makes them reusable. Therefore, they are :alled renewable resources. Some of the renewable resources are given below:

kir is several kilometers thick blanket of atmosphere surrounding the ,arth. Xiis very important natural resource. It consists of these gases: Nitrogen 79%). Oxygen (20%). Carbon dioxide (0.03%) and traces of inert gases callable gases.

oxygen is consumed during respiration. CO2 and nitrogen are used as raw aterials in a natural cycle for making food and other Substances. These substances are required in living system.

5% of the earth surface is covered with water. It is also a component of soil and ir. It is also a major constituent of living organisms. It is 70 to 90% of the body eight. About 97% of the total water of planet earth is in oceans. 2% water is in he form of frozen ice — caps and only 1% as available fresh water in lakes, streams and rivers.

Land and soil

Land is an important natural resource. Soil can be defined as “the upper layer of earth’s crust.” The basic constituents of soil are soil particles, soil water and inorganic matter and soil organisms. Soil performs following functions:

(i)         Soil plays very important role in supporting life on land. Land plants depend
directly on soil for anchorage.

(ii)        Soil provides water, organic and inorganic nutrients to the plants.

(hi) Only 30% of earth is land. Man lives on land. The population of man is increasing. Thus they are using more land

(iv) 11% of the total area of the world is under cultivation.

Wild life

All non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals are included in wild life_ Animals and plants have been major source of food for humans. Wild life plays very important role in food chain. The food chain is disturbed without wild life. So, it becomes very difficult to maintain the balance in ecosystem without wild life. Energy



There is a shortage of energy in our country. This shortage is caused due to rapidly decreasing supplies of fossil fuels. The fossil fuel is present in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. The energy resources can also be classified as inexhaustible and exhaustible.

(a)       inexhaustible resource: These resources include solar energy, falling water (hydropower), wind, ocean thermal gradients, waves, tides, currents, geothermal and biomass.

(b)       Exhaustible resources: These resources are fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas.

  1. Fossil fuels

Coal, oil and gas are the fossil fuels. 95% of our daily energy requirements are met from these resources. They are called fossil fuels because they are the dead remains of plants and animals of past. These plants and animals were buried due to environmental hazards. Thus they fossilized in deeper layers of earth and sea.

  1. Hydroelectric power

The energy generated by falling water Is called hydroelectric power or electricity. Rain is a renewable energy source. Rain gets its energy indirectly from sun. Rain falls on high areas such as mountains. This rain possesses large amount of gravitational potential energy. As rain water falls it gains speed. So Its kinetic energy Increases. This kinetic energy of falling water is used to turn turbines. These turbines are fixed at the base of dams, The running turbines drive generator. These generators produce electricity. This electricity is known as hydroelectric power or electricity. It is the cheapest anr non pollutant source of energy. Therefore, we must use it more and more for itu benefit of human. It also keeps our environment safe.

  1. Tidal power

Tides are mainly caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the gravitational pull of sun on the water in sea and oceans. The changing tides drive water towards or away from the land. Thus there is a difference in height of the water at high and low tides. This difference of height is used in a tidal power station to generate electricity. A tidal power station consists of a long barrier called a tidal barrage. The flow of water across the barrage turns its turbines These turbines drive the generators to produce electricity.

  1. Wind power

Moving air is called wind. The sun warm the different parts of the earth surface unevenly. This difference of temperature on the earth causes the wind to blow. Warm air rises from a place. The cooler air flows as wind to take its place. There are different temperatures at different places. This difference in temperature has created various high and low-pressure regions. Wind blows from area of high pressure to area of lower pressure.

Modern windmills or wind turbines uses wind energy to drive generators. These generators produce electricity. Wind itself costs nothing. It also does not cause 3 ir pollution. All the windmills stop working when the wind stops blowing !Therefore, windmills are built in large number at different locations. These ocations have strong and steady winds. Thus the windmills work efficiently. It :ontinuously supplies electric and mechanical energy.

  1. Nuclear energy •

Juclear energy is obtained from nuclear fuels by nuclear . fission. The fission eaction takes place in a nuclear reactor. The nuclear fission produces a large .mount of energy in nuclear power station. This heat energy is used to convert tater into steam. This steam drives steam turbines. These steam turbines enerate electricity.

luclear power station does not produce waste gases. So they do not pollute the ir. However, the life of each nuclear power station is only 30 years. Similarly. rict safety measures are taken to avoid radiation pollution.

  1. Geothermal energy

The natural heat energy trapped underground is called geothermal energy. Hot substance escape from the inside of the earth through volcanoes and hot springs. These hot water or substances carry geothermal energy. This energy comes up at surface in some part of earth such as New Zealand and Ice Land. This energy is used to produce electricity.


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