Community Community is composed of all populations living in an area.
Dominant specie Species    that   determine    community     characteristics    are

called dominant species.

Succession The process of change a community in a predictable ways is called succession.
Ecological niche All   the-   attributes     of   lifestyle     of   an   animal     is    called

ecological niche.,

Pioneer community The first community establish          in an area       is called     the



pioneer community.

Sere The entire successional sequence is called sere.
Ecosystem Communities and their physical environment are called ecosystems. The sequence of organisms through which energy moves in an ecosystem is called food chain.
Food chain
Food web Complexly interconnected food         chains are called food
Limnetic zone The open water area where enough light can penetrate is called limnetic zone.
Stream and rivers The fresh water bodies in which water moves Continuously



    in one direction are called streams and rivers.
  Photic zone The open water of ocean where light can penetrate is called photic zone.
  Aphotic zone The zone below the aphotic zone where light cannot penetrate is called a aphotic zone.
  Benthic zone The open water at the seafloor is called benthic zone.
  Estuary The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean is called an estuary.
  Prairies The grass land without woody trees is called prairies.
  Savanna The   grassland     with    scattered. woody      trees    is    called
  Tundra The treeless region on the high attitude or latitude is called tundra.
  Pollution Any    detrimental     change    in    an   ecosystem     is    called
  Biological magnification The   accumulation     of matter      in   food     webs    is    called

biological magnification.


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