Habitat All living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) characteristics of the area in which an animal lives is called habitat.
Tolerance range Certain range of values in which an animal live is called tolerance range for any environmental factor.
Range of optimum A certain range of values within the tolerance range which defines the conditions under which an animal is most successful is called the range of optimum.
Limiting factor The factor which become out of tolerance range of an animal is called limiting factor.
Taxes The orientation of an animal in response to an abiotic factor is called taxis.
Positive phototaxis The movement of animal towards light is called positive phototaxis.
Negative phototaxis The movement of animal away from the light source is called negative phototaxis.
Energy The ability to do work is called energy.
Energy budget The accounting       of total     energy of an        animal     and    a

description of how that energy is used and lost is called energy budget.

Productive energy The energy left after existence and excretory functions is called productive energy.
Torpor The daily time of decreased metabolism and lowered body temperature is called torpor.
Aestivation The period of inactivity in some animals for withstanding dry period is called aestivation.
Population Populations are groups of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at the same time.
Exponential 3rowth The increase of population by the same ratio per unit time is called exponential growth.

The     number   of    individuals     per   unit    space     is    called
population density.

Population density



independent factors

The   factors     which    are     not   influenced    by   density     of

population are called density independent factors.

Density dependent factors The factors which are influenced by density of population are called density dependent factors.



interspecific competition The interactions among members of the different species are called interspecific competition.
Herbivores Animals that feed on plants by cropping portions of the plant, but not killing the plant are herbivores.
Predators The animals which readily kill and eat other organisms are called predators.
Coevolution The coordinated evolution of ecologically related species in such a .way that each species exerts a strong selective influence on the other is called coevolution.
Commensalisms A symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits and the second is neither helped nor harmed is called corrimensalisms.
Mutualism The symbiotic relationship that benefits both members is called mutualism.
Camouflage The hiding of an animal or its developmental stage from

another     animal    by   animal’s     color    patterns     is    called


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