Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.
Disaccharides The sugars composed of mo monosaecharidesare   called  disaccharides.These  sugars  are
linked bn glxcosidic linkage
Sucrose It   is  a   disaccharide  formed   h Nlinking   amolecule of glucose to a molecule of fructose.
Lactose A     glucose   molecule    bonds   to    anothermonosaccharide_   galactose  and   it    forms

disaccharide   lactose (commonkcalled   milk

Maltose It is formed b‘ the joining of glucose subunits. It gives beer seeds a sweet taste. [leer brev,el’S ferment barley into alcohol.
Polysaccharides The   poly liter of many    monosaccharides  iscalled polysaccharides.
Amylose starch It is a simple form of starch. Amy lose have unbranched chain of glucose. It is soluble in hot water.
Amylopectin It   is  mostcomplex  form   of starch.   It   hasbranched chains. It is insoluble in hot or cold water.
Lipids Lipids are nonpolar organic molecules that areinsoluble    in    polar  water    but   soluble   in
nonpolar organic solvents like ether, alcohol, and chloroform.
Fats Fats are esters of fatty acids and glycerol.
Fatty acid Fatty acids contain long hydrocarbon chains bonded to carboxyl (COOH) groups.
Waxes The mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number of carbon from (‘23 to Cu). alcohols,
ketones. and esters of long chain fatty acids is called waxes, e.g. cutin.
Protein                         . Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
Hydrophobic                          .amino acids These amino acids contain    non-polar side
amino acids
These amino acids have polar side chains.
Primary structure The linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chains is called primary structure.
Secondary structure The structure formed by folding or coiling of poly peptide chain Yy ith the help of hydrogen bonding is called secondary structure.
a helix A   delicate  coil  of polypeptide   chain   heldtogether by • hydrogen bonding between every fourth peptide bond is called alpha helix.
Pleated sheet A sheet of polypeptide chain formed by thefolding   backand   forthof the             polypeptide
chain is called p pleated sheet.
Tertiary structu re The structure of protein formed by folding of helix or sheet into a three dimensional shape is called tertiary structure.
DNA The        nucleic       acid        polymer      ofdeoxyribonucleotides is called DNA.
Exon The coding portions are called exons
Introns The   noncoding    an      portions  are  called
RNA he     poly mers of ribonucleotides arecal ledRN A.
Transcription                        • The process of synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transcription.
tRNA The tRNA reads message (code) on inRNAand   transfer  specific   amino  acid  to        the
rRNA                         . The rRNA combines with ribosomal proteins and forms ribosome.





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