DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES OF KINGDOM PROTESTA ALGAE

 

TERMS

,

DEFINITIONS                                  t
Epiphytes These algae grow on the surface cf other plants.
Phyloplankton The free floating algae are phytoplankton.
Endophytes These algae live inside the other plants
Cennobia Some colonies have definite number of cells. Such colonies are called coenobia.
He .erotrichous The filament with prostate (horizontal) and vertical system are called heterotrichot s.
Pseudo

r enchymatous

Sometimes, filaments are loosely grouped to from pseudoparenchyinatous body.
Coenocytic The filaments without cross walls are called coenocyaic filaments.
Palmella Sometimes,sporesremainsembedded  in

mucilaginous matrix. Thus a rounded body is formed with many spores. This condition is called Palmella stage.

Zoospores Motile spores are called zoospores.
Slanospores The non-motile spores are called aplanospore.
Hypnospores In this case, cell secretes a thick wall and become rounded. It becomes hynospore. If the original wall of the cell becomes thick, it is called akinete.
Akinetes
Palmella Sometimes,sporesremainsembedded  in

mucilaginous matrix. Thus a rounded body is formed with many spores. This condition is called Palmella stage.

Gonidia The   size  of some  cells  increases.They

become ten times larger. These cells an:, called Jonidia.

The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum.

Cingulum

 

 

Frnstule The two valves with their inner protoplasts are called frustule.
Va’ve view The frustule has two views. The surface view is called valve view
Baud view Band view is called !irdle view.
   

 

MODEL SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONSJ

  1. Give general characters of algae?
  2. Describe different types of life cycles in algae.
  3. Write note on reproduction in algae.
  4. Give classification of algae.
  5. Describe vegetative structure of Volvox.
  6. Describe reproduction in Volvox.
  7. Describe vegetative structure and growth in Chart.
  8. Describe structure and development of globule and
  9. Describe reproductive cycle of Chara.
  10. Give general characters of Division vaucheriophyla.
  11. Describe vegetative structure and reproduction in
  12. Give general characters and economic importance of
    diatoms.
  13. Describe vegetative structure and reproducolon in
    Pinnularia.
  14. Describe vegetative structure of Polysiphonia.
  15. Give reproduction and life cycle of Pol siphonia.

ISHORT QUESTIONS!

  1. What are algae? Where are they found?

Ans:       Algae are aquatic plants. They are both freshwater and

marine. Freshwater includes ponds, streams, moist rocks and bark of trees. Marine forms are present from sea shore to depth up to I 00nieter.

  1. What are coenobia? In which is it found?

Ans! Some colonies have definite number of cells. Such colonies are called coenobia. It is found in Volvox.

  1. What are Heterotrichous, Pseudoparenchymatous and
    Coenocytic filaments?

Ans: The filament with prostate (horizontal) and vertical system

are called heterotrichous. Sometimes, filaments are loosely grouped to from pseudoparenchymatous body. The I laments without cross walls are called coenocytic filaments.

  1. Name some accessory pigments.

Ans: Carotene, Xanthophyll, Fucoxanthin, myxozanthin

  1. What are Phycobilins?

Ans: These are phycocyanin (blue) and phycoerythrin (red)

  1. What are axonemes, basal bodies and paradesomes? Ans: Each flagellum is composed of axial filaments called

axonemes. Axonemes are surrounded by sheath. Flagellum arises from basal bodies. Basal bodies are connected with each other by transverse fibers called paradesmose.

  1. What are Monophasic Haploid?

Ans:     It is a primitive life cycle. In this case, vegetative plant body

remains haploid. Gametes are produced by mitosis. Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote. First division in zygote is meiosis. It forms haploid vegetative body. Thus zygote is the only diploid stage in such cycles.

  1. What are diphasic life cycle?

Ans: In this case, two types of generation are produced: gametophyte and sporophyte. Both generations a:temates with each other. If both generations have similar vegetative structure, then they are called isomorphic. If they have different structures, then they are called heteromorphic.

  1. What is pallmella stage?

Ass: Sometimes, spores remains embedded in mucilaginous matrix. Thus a rounded body is formed with many spores. This condition is called Palmella stage.

  1. Differentiate between zoospore and aplanospore. Ans: Zoospores: Motile spores are called zoospores. The non-motile spores are called aplanospore.
  2. Differentiate between isogamy and anisogamy.

Ans: Isogamy: In this case, gametes have similar size and form. Their fusion is called isogamy. Anisogamy: In tl.is case, gametes have similar structures and form but different sizes. The smaller active gamete is called male gamete. The larger less active gamete is called female gamete. They fuse to for zygospore.

  1. Differentiate between Homothallic and Heterothallic?Ans: In case of Homothallic. gametes of the same plant .an fuse with each other. In case of heterothallic, gametes of different plants fuse with each other.
    1. What are gonidia in Volvox?

    Ans: Only certain cells at the posterior end of the colony take part in the asexual reproduction. The size of these cells increases. They become ten times larger. These cells are called gonidia. Gonidia develop numerous pyrenoids. There are 5 — 20 gonidia in each colony. They produce daughter colony within the parent colony.

    1. Give mechanism of fertilization in Volvox.

    Ans: An aperture is produced in the wall of oogonium. Antherozoids enter into oogonium through this pore. Only one antherozoid unites with the egg and zygote is formed. Zygote secretes a thick wall and become oospore. The wall of oospore is three layered. Oospore produces a large amount of heamotochrome. So its colour becomes orange red.

    1. Give different methods of asexual reproduction in chara.

    Ans: Amylum stars: These are star shaped aggregates of cells. They are developed at the lower nodes. Bulbills: These are formed at the rhizoids. Protonemal outgrowth: Tnese are also used for vegetative propagules.

    1. Give occurrence of chara.

    Ans: Chara is fresh water algae. It is submerged in ponds. It is attached to the muddy or sandy bottom by rhizoids. Sometimes, it grows deep underground. Mature plant is covered with calcium carbonate. Therefore, Chara is also known as stonew orts.

    1. What are male and female reproductive organs in Chara?

    Ans: Sexual reproduction is oogamous in Chara. Sex organs are antheridia and archegonia. They are enclosed by multicellular sheath. This sheath forms male and female fructification. The male fructification is called globule. The female fructification is called nucule.

    1. Give structure of nucule of chara.

    Ans t Nucule is a female fructification. It is composed of a large pedicel cell. Central and stalk cells are present on the pcells. Oogonium is attached to the .stalk cell. Oogonium contains single large oosphere. Oogonium is covered by five tube cells. These tube cells are elongated and spirally twisted. A crown of five cells is present at the top of oogonium. It is called corona.


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    1. Give general structure of Vaucheria.

    Ans:    The filament is cylindrical. The filament is attached to the

    substratum by hepteron. Hepteron is colourless branched rhizoid like structure. Filament increases in length Ly apical growth.

    1. Give structure of valves of diatoms.

    Ans: The cell wall of diatoms is composed of pectic substance. Silica is impregnated in it. Therefore, their wall becomes very hard. Their wall is composed of two halves called valves. These halves overlap like Petridish. The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum. The two valves with their inner protoplasts are called frustule. The outer larger valve is called epithet*. The smaller inner valve is called hypotheca.

    1. What are cingulum and frustule?

    Ans: The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum. The two valves with thcir inner protoplasts are called frustule.

    1. Differentiate between two symmetries of diatoms.

    Air: Radially symmetrical (Centrales): In this case, markings are arranged in radially symmetrical tatterti. The diatoms are circular in shape. The group ot melt diatoms is called Centrales.

    Bilaterally symmetrical (Pennaies): The have bilaterally symmetrical thickenings. These diatoms are elongated or boat shaped The group of such diatoms is called per attics.

    1. Differentiate between valve view and girdle view. Ans: The frustule has two views. The surface view is call Al valve view and band view is called girdle view.
    2. Give occurrence of Batrachospermum.

    Ans:    Batrachospermum is fresh water alga. It is found in clear,

    cool and running streams. Deep water plants are da.k violet or reddish in colour. But the shallow water speThe thallus is attached to the substratum.

    1. What is Carpogonia? Give its structure.

    Am: The female reproductive organ is carpogonia. Carpogonia are unicellular. It consists of an elongated cell preseit at the base. The upper larger portion is called trichogyne. The lower globular portion is called mirophore. Tilt branch bearing the carpogonium is called ascocarp. Ascocarp consists of four cells. The terminal cell form carpogcnium.

    1. What is chantransia stage? How is it formed?

    Ans: Carpospore separates from the filaments and secretes cell wall. It becomes a pod of parenchymatous tissues. Erect braches arise from this pad of tissues. These filaments form the juvenile or chantransia stage.

    1. What are trichoblasts? Give their fithetion.

    Ans: Trichoblasts: The tips of branches are inonosiphonous. So these are tapering. These branches are fine hair like. So these are called trichoblasts. Trichoblasts are borne in spiral manner on the axis. The cells of the trichoblasts are uninucleate and colourless.

    1. What is gametophyte generation in Polyliphonia?

    Ans: The gametophyte plants produce gametes. The male gametes (spermatia) and female gametes (oosphere) fuse to form diploid nucleus. It is the be innin of the sporophytit stage.

The thallus is attached to the substratum.

  1. What is Carpogonia? Give its structure.

Am: The female reproductive organ is carpogonia. Carpogonia are unicellular. It consists of an elongated cell preseit at the base. The upper larger portion is called trichogyne. The lower globular portion is called mirophore. Tilt branch bearing the carpogonium is called ascocarp. Ascocarp consists of four cells. The terminal cell form carpogcnium.

  1. What is chantransia stage? How is it formed?

Ans: Carpospore separates from the filaments and secretes cell wall. It becomes a pod of parenchymatous tissues. Erect braches arise from this pad of tissues. These filaments form the juvenile or chantransia stage.

  1. What are trichoblasts? Give their fithetion.

Ans: Trichoblasts: The tips of branches are inonosiphonous. So these are tapering. These branches are fine hair like. So these are called trichoblasts. Trichoblasts are borne in spiral manner on the axis. The cells of the trichoblasts are uninucleate and colourless.

  1. What is gametophyte generation in Polyliphonia?

Ans: The gametophyte plants produce gametes. The male gametes (spermatia) and female gametes (oosphere) fuse to form diploid nucleus. It is the be innin of the sporophytit stage.

OBJECTIVE

Multiple Choice Questions (MC0s)

  1. Some colonies have definite number of cells. Such colonies are:

(a) I leterotrichous     (b) Coenobia (c) Coenocytes

  1. The filament with prostate (horizontal) and vertical
    systems are:

(a) fieterotrichous     (b) Coenocytes (c) Coenobia

  1. The filaments without cross walls are:

(a) Fleterotrichous    (b) Coenocytes (c) Coenobia

  1. The structure used to store starch is:

(a) Coenobia (b) Chloroplast (c) Pyrenoids (d) Phycobi’ins

  1. Which of the followings are pigments:

(a) Coenobia (b) Chloroplast (c) Pyrenoids (d) Phycoblins

  1. Chlorophyll d is present only in:(a) Rhodophyta (b)Chlorophyta(c) Eugenophyta (d) Chrysophyta
    1. Chlorophyll d is present in:

    (a) Rhodophyta (b) Chlorophyta(c) Eugenophyta (d) Chrysoohyta

    1. Each flagellum is composed of axial filaments called: (a) axonemes (b) Basal body (c) paradesmose (d) Mannitol
    2. The nonmotile spores are called:

    (a) aplanospore (b) Hypnospores (c) akinete    (d) Palmelle

    1. In somas cases, cell secretes a thick wall and become
      rounded. It becomes:

    (a) aplanospore (b) Hypnospores (c) akinete    (d) Palmel la

    1. If the original wall of the cell becomes thick, it is cal’ed.

    (a) aplanospore (b) Hypnospores (c) akinete    (d) Palmella

    1. Vaucheria belongs to:

    (a) Charophyta (b) Xanthphyta (c) Rhodophyta (d) Phaeophyta

    1. Clara belongs to:

    (a) Charophyta (b) Xanthphyta (c) Rhodophyta (d) Phaeophyta

    1. Laminaria belongs to:

    (a) Rhodophyta (b) Xanthphyta (c) Charophyta (d) Phaeophyta

    1. Heamotochrome is found in:

    (a) Chlorophyta (b) Xanthphyta (c) Charophyta (d) Phaeophyta

    1. Gonidia are found in:

    (a) Chara            (b) Laminaria (c) Volvox        (d) Polysiphonia

    1. Male reproductive organ in Chara is:

    (a) Globule        (b) Nucule      (c) Bulbul        (d) Amylurr star

    1. The margins of the two valves are covered by a
      connecting band called:

    (a) Frustule        (b) Cingulum (c) raphe           (d) Axial field

    1. The two valves with their inner protoplasts ar: called
      frustule:

    (a) Frustule        (b) Cingulum (c) raphe           (d) Axial fit Id

    1. The axial field may be homogenous. Or it may contain a longitudinal slit called: Answers
      1. (b) 2. (a)   3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (d)
      10. (b) 11. (c)  12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (c) 17. (a)
      18. (b) 19. (a) 20.          

       

 

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