DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES

TERMS DEFINITIONS
Genetics The study of transfer of hereditary characters

(genes)  from  parent  to offspring     is   called
genetics.

Classical genetics The techniques and methodologies of genetics are called classical genetics.
Genomics The  study  of  large-scale          genetic       patterns

across the genome is genomics.

Mendelian
inheritance
The genetics which governs the transmission

of hereditary characteristics from                                           parent to
their children is called Mendelian inheritance.

True breed A variety which always produces offspring identical to the parents by self- fertilization is called true breeding variety.
Gene The sequence of changes in cellinvolving

period  of  growth,replication  of  DNA,
followed by cell division is called cell cycle.

Gene locus The position of gene on chromosome is called its locus.
Alleles Partners of a gene pair are called alleles.
Back cross The cross (a hybrid) with one of its parents or with an individual genetically identical to one of its parents is called back cross.
Monohybrid cross The cross in which one trait is followed at a time is called monohybrid cross.
Dihybrids The   offspringproduced  by   the   cross

fertilization between two plant, differing in two characters are called dihybrids.

Dihybrid cross The cross in which two traits is followed at a time is called dihybrid cross.
Parental generation When two pure line parents are crossed with


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each    other,they  are  called  first    parental
generation (PO.

F, generation The offspring of the PI generation are called F1 or first filial generation. All F1 offspring were round like one of the parents.
Homozygous When both the alleles of a gene pair in an organism are same, it is called homozygous.
Heterozygous When both the alleles of a gene pair in an

organ ism      are       different,        it        is       cal led
heterozygous.

Test cross The cross which    is used to determine the

genotype of an individual is called test cross.

Law of

independent assortment

It states that, “When two contrasting pairs of

trait are  followed   in  thesamecross,  their

alleles  assort  independently      into    the            two
gametes.

Dominance Dominance is a physiological effect of an allele over its partner allele on the same gene locus.
Codominance The dominance in which both alleles of a gene

expressed     in  a                 heterozygous          conditionare
called codominant.

 

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