Community The populations of different species living in the

same habitat is called community.



The   characteristics which  can   be analyzed by

Quantitative or   qualitative  methods  are  called
analytic characteristics.

Qualitative characteristics The   disruptive  characteristics which  cannot   be

measured are called qualitative characteristics.

Stratification The plants occurring together with a similar ecology in definite strata are called stratification  
Periodicity The   rhythmic   phenomena             related  to        seasonal

changes is called periodicity.

Vitality Vitality: The capacity of plants to complete its life cycle is called vitality .  


The   characteristics           which    can           be        measured       are

called quantitative characteristics.

Density The number of individuals of specie in a unit area is called density.
Abundance The estimation of individuals of specie is called abundance.
Fidelity The relative occurrence of specie in an association or a group of related association is called fidelity.
The general appearance or outlines of the stand or community are called physiognomic characteristics.
Phanerophytes These plants include woody trees and shrubs. Their bud bearing shoots are elevated and exposed to the atmosphere.
Therophytes It   includes’      all   the     annual  plants.     Their     only

perennating buds are present in seeds.

Chamaeophytes They include wood or semi woody perennial under shrubs. The bud is above the ground but less than 25 cm high. Example Salvia sp.
Hemi-cryptophytes The perennating buds are half hidden in the surface of soil. Example euphorbia.
Cryptophytes Their buds are in soil or under water, e.g. Hydrilla.
Transect A transect is a long rectangular sample plot.
Quadrat A   quadratis  a  sampling  unit  used for  the



quantitative study of plant communities.

Succession The process of community development is called succession.
Primary succession The formation of ecosystem from bare rock, sand or clear glacial pool where previous life do not exist is called primary succession.
Autogenic succession The  succession in   which organisms       themselves

bring change in the environment during succession is called autogenic succession.

Allogenic succession The succession in which external environmental

factors cause change in the environment during
succession is called allogenic succession.



The phenomena of growth of propagules and their adjustments in the new surrounding area is called ecesis


Competition The struggle for existence between the plants is called competition.
Reaction The effect of plants on the habitat is known as reaction.
Proclimax The  community  which   is  more  or   less stable

resembling  the  climax  community     is   called

Productivity The rate at which food is manufactured by the

producersin   unit   area  in   unit   time is called

Primary productivity The rate at which solar energy is converted into

organic  energy  by  green  plants   or   total  food

assimilation  rateof producers  is called   primary


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