The word arid means dry. The dry land is called arid  land. This problem is called aridity.
 Arid climate
   Arid climate is defined as the climate in which precipitation is less than the evapotranspiration in most part of the year.


Biodiversity The variety of living organisms in an ecosystem is called biodiversity.
Conservation The management of the earth resources to restore and maintain balance between human requirement

and    other  species   in     the  world     is    called

Water logging The soil which is saturated with water is called water logged soil and this problem is called water logging.
Salinity The soil in which salt crust is left due to evaporation

of water is called saline soil and this problem    is
called salinity.

Pollution Pollution has been defined by Odum (1971) as “the

undesirablechange  in  thephysical.  chemical                   or
biological characteristics of air, land and water that may affect the human life.

Eutrophieation The increased productivity of lake caused due to enriehment of nutrients is called eutrophication.
Effluent Industrial waste is called effluents.
Noise pollution Any unwanted sound is called noise. The dumping of unwanted sound into atmosphere is called noise pollution.
Soil erosion The wearing away of the soil by wind, water, snow or gravity is called soil erosion.




Spreading of deserts to the green areas is called

deserti fication. .            ,



The operation by which land is prepared for crops plantation. harvesting is called land management.


The ecosystemwith  predominant  species of tall

annual    woody   trees   is     called   forest.   The
maintenance and sustaining of the forest is called forest management.

Rangeland management The grass land used by the animals for grazing is

called rangeland.   The  application  of science  on

rangelandtor   producing  maximum number   of

grazing livestock    regularly  is  called  rangeland




Watershed An area from which water fall in the form of rain or snow collects into a stream and river  is  called watershed.  
Watershed management The storage of water for irrigation and for producing electricity by constructing dams and   barrages is called water shed management.  



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