The metal ions which are loosely attached with the enzymes are called

Capturecofactors. These metal ions are Ca-2, mg-2, mn-2,                           2,

Cu” and Zr12. These metal ions change a nonfunctioning active site to a functioning one. The attachment of a cofactor changes the shape of the protein. It allows the enzyme to combine with its substrate. The cofactors of other enzymes participate in the temporary bonds between the enzyme and its substrate during enzyme-substrate complex formation.


Coenzymes are non protein, organic molecules that participate in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. They are often used in transporting electrons from one enzyme to another. These electrons are present in the form of hydrogen atoms. Many vitamins like niacin and riboflavin function as coenzymes. Or they are used to make coenzymes. Coenzymes transport energy in the form of hydrogen atoms from crne enzyme to another.




One of the most important coenzymes in the cell is the hydrogen acceptor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). It is made from vitamin B. NAD acquires a hydrogen atom from an enzyme and it reduces to NADH.

The electron of the hydrogen atom contains energy. This energy is carried by NADI- molecule. ,For example, various foods are oxidized in the cell. The cell remo‘ es electrons from the food molecules. It transfers this electron to NAD. It reduces to NADH.


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