Classification system of Carolus Linnaeus

The classification system of Linnaeus was based on floral characteristics. He chiefly used characters of stamen’s. Therefore, his system is called sexual system. This system is very convenient for the identification of plants. I le presented his classification system in two books. These books are Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum.

Advantages of Linnaeus system: Linnaeus was first to introduced some system of classification. It gave some basic knowledge of classification. So it was widely accepted by the taxonomists of that time. It provided a reference work. He gave clear cut concept of species. This concept is still used today.

Disadvantage of Linnaeus system: Linnaeus declared his system as artificial or temporary. He realized that that this system should be changed with some natural system. Linnaeus grouped some unrelated plants due to similarity in flower structure. Similarly. Linnaeus was a religious person.opposed the concept of evolution in classification.

Scheme of Linnaeus system: Linnaeus divided be plants into twenty four classes. He mostly used the characteristics of stamens to differentiate between classes. He also used tne conditions of perigynous, hypogynous, dynamous, filaments fused or not fused, number of fasicles anther attachment, presene of male and female flowers. These classes are:

I. Class Monandria: They have single stamen. Examples: Canna

  1. Class Diandria: They have two stamens. Example: Salva

  2. Class T Hand ria: They have three stamens. Example: Poa

  3. Class Tetrandria: They have four stamens. Example: Cuscuta

  4. Class Pentandira: They have five stamens. Example: Daucus

  5. Class Hexandria: They have six stamens. Example: Rumex

  6. Class Heptandria: They have seven stamens. Example: Aesculus

  7. Class Octandrit They have eight stamens. Example: Sapindus

  8. Class Enneandria: They have nine stamens. Example: Rheum

  9. Class Decandria: They have ten stamens. Example: Silene

  10. Class Dodecandria: They have 12-19 stamens. Example: Euphorbia

  11. Class Icosandria: They have 20 or more stamens and hypogynous condition. Example: Cactus.

  12. Class Polyandria: They have 20 or more stamens with hypogynous condition. Example: Ranunculus

  13. Class Didynamia: They have didynamous stamens. Example: • Bignonia

  14. Class Tetradynamia: They have tetradynamous stamens. Example: Trifolium.

  15. Class Monodelphia: They have fused filament with one fasicle. Example: Sida

  1. Class Diadelphia: They have fUsed filament with two fasieles. Example: Polygala

  2. Class Polydelphia: Their stamens are fused with several fasicles. Example: Citrus

  3. Class Syngenesia: They have anther connate. Example: Viola

  4. Class Gynandria: Their stamens are fused to their pistils. Example: Orchis

  5. ..Class Monoecia: They have male and female flowers on same plant. Example: Belida


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  6. Class Dioecia: They lune male and female flowers on different plant. Example: Najas

  7. Class Polygamia: Their Ilmsers are polygamous. Example: Pupil

  8. Class Cryptogamia: Flowers are absent or not apparent. Example: Fucus

Classification system of Jussieu

This system was proposed by Bernard de Jussieu and Laurent Jussiett. They introduced Natural classification system. They divided the plants into 100 orders and 15 classes. They recognized the difference between Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. They separated the cryptograms (non-seed producing) from seed producing plants. They divided the plants into three groups:

    I. Acotyledons: They are non-seed producing plants.

  1. Monocotyledons: They hat c single cotyledons.

  2. Dicotyledons: They have two cotyledons.

Augustine Pyrame de Condone improved the Jussietis system. I le divided the plants into 213 orders. lie used morphological characteristics to differentiate between these orders.

Classification system of Bentham and Hooker

1 his system was proposed by George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker. They proposed natural classilication system. .[heir system as published ill Genera Plantarum. They divide the seed plants into 202 orders. .[heir system was chiefly based on De Condone. Advantage of Bentham and Booker Classification system:

  1. . It is oased on natural classification system. It changed the artificial classification system.
  2. . It differentiated between seed producing and non- seed producing plants.
  3. It mostly deals with flowering plants (Angiospermic plants).

  4. It covers a large number of plants.

  5. The criteria for. this system is vegetative characteristics (herbs. shrubs or trees), presence or pith. cambium, arrangement of leaves, leave venations, presence of corolla. calyx, perianth. stamens and carpels.

Disadvantages of Bentham and Hooker Classification system: I his system is based on natural classification system. It uses set of morphological characteristics. But this system failed to give concept of phylogenetic relationship. therefore. it is only a modified form of • Linnaeus system. Thus this system was not accepted by many taxonomists.

Scheme of Bentham and Hooker Classification system:

This classification system divided the plants into two major groups. Each group has sub-groups. Each sub-group is divided into divisions. Each division is di’ ided into series. Each series is divided into cohorts. Finally each cohort is di % ided into many orders.

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