Subphylum Uniramia Classification


Phylum Arthropoda

Animals with metamerism and tagmatization;a jointed exoskeleton, and a ventral nervous system.

Subphylum Uniramia

Head with one pair of antennae and one pair of mandibles; all appendages uniramous. It has following classes:

  1. Class Diplopoda (millipedes): Two pairs of legs per apparent segment: body round in cross section.
  2. Class Chilopoda (Centipedes): One pair of legs per segment: body is oval in cross lion: poison claws.
  3. Class Pauropoda: Small (0.5 to 2 mm), soft-bodied animals: 11 segments: nine pairs of legs: live in leaf mold.
  4. Class Symphyla: Small (2 to 10mm): long antennae: centipede-like. 10 to 12 pairs of legs; live in soil and leaf mold.
  5. Class Hexapoda (Insects): Three pairs of legs: two pairs of wings body with head, thorax. and abdomen: mandibulate mouthparts.

(a) Subclass Apterygota: Primitively, wingless insects: pregenital abdominal appendages: ametabolous metamorphosis: indirect sperm transfer.

  • (i)  Order Collembola: Antennae with four to six segments: compound eyes absent: abdomen with six segments,  most with springing appendage on fourth segment: a inhabit soil and leaf litter.Springtails.
  • (ii) Order Protura: Minute, with cone-shaped head; antennae, compound eyes and ocelli absent; abdominal appendages on first three segments;  inhabit soil and leaf litter.
  • (iii) Order Diplura : Head with many segmented antennae; compound eyes and ocelli absent; cerci multisegmented or rorcepslike; inhabit soil and leaf litter.
  • (iv) Order Thysanura: Tapering abdomen; flattened ; scales on body; terminal cerci; long antennae. Silverfish.

(b) Subclass Pterygota: Insects descendant from winged ancestors; no pregenital appendages: direct sperm transfer.

Superorder Exopterygota:

Pauronetabolous (or hemimetabolous): wings develop as external wing pads.

  • (i) Order Ephemeroptera: Elongate abdomen with two or three tail filament; two pairs of membranous wings with many veins; forewings triangular; abort, bristle like antennae. Mayflies.
  • (ii) Order Odonsta: Elongate, membranous wings with netlike venation; abdomen long and slender; compound eyes occupy most of head. Dragonflies and damselflies
  • (iii) Order Phasmida: Body elongate and sticklike; wings reduced or absent; some tropical forms are flattened and leaf like. Walking sticks, leaf insects.
  • (iv) Order Orthoptera: Forming long, narrow, and leathery; hind wing broad and membranous; chewing mouthparts. Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids.
  • (v) Order Mantodea: Prothorax tong; prothoracic legs long and armed with strong pines for grasping prey; predators. Mantids.
  • (vi) Order Blattaria: Body oval and flattened; head concealed from above by a shield like extension or the prothorax. Cockroaches.
  • (vii) Order Isoptera: Workers white and wingless; front and hindwings of reproductives of equal size; reproductives and some soldiers are sclerotized; abdomen broadly joins thorax;social. Termites.
  • (viii)Order Dermaptera: Chewing mouth parts; threadlike antennae; abdomen with unsegmented forceps like cerci, Earwigs.
  • (ix) Order Phthiraptera: Small wingless ectoparasites of birds and mammals; body dorsoventrally flattened; white. Sucking and chewing lice.
  • ( x) Order Hemiptera: Proximal portion of forewing sclerotized. distal portion membranous, sucking mouthparts arise ventrally on anterior margin of head. True hugs.
  • (xi) Order Homoptera: Wings entirely membranous; mouthparts arise ventrally on posterior margin of head (hypognathous). Cicadas, leafhoppers, aphids. whitellies. scale insects.
  • (xii) Order Thysanoptera: Small bodied; sucking mouthparts; wings narrow and fringed with tong setae; plant pests. Thrips.

Superorder Endopterygota



Holometabolous metamorphosis; wings develop internally during pupal stage.

  • (i) Order Neuroptera: Wings membranous; hindwings held roof like over body at rest. Lacewings. snake flies, antlioins, dobsonflies.
  • (ii) Order Coleoptera: Forewings sclerotized, forming covers (elytra) over the abdomen; hindwings membranous; chewing mouthparts; the largest insect order. Beetles.
  • (iii) Order Trichoptera: Moth like with setae-covered antennae; chewing mouthparts: wings covered with setae and held roof like over abdomen at rest; larvae aquatic and often dwell in cases that they construct. Caddis Ales.
  • (iv) Order Lepidoptera: Wings broad and covered with scales; mouthparts formed into a sucking tube. Moths, butterflies.
  • (v) Order Diptera: Mesothoracic wings wall developed; metathoracic wings reduced to knoblike halteres; variously modified but-never chewing mouth- parts. Flies.
  • (vi) Order Siphonaptera: Laterally flattened, sucking mouthparts; Jumping legs: parasites of birds and mammals. Fleas.
  • (vii) Order Hymenoptera: Wings membranous with few veins; well developed ovipositor, sometimes modified into a sting; mouthparts. Modified into sting and lapping; social and solitary species. Ants, bees, wasps.

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