Class Aves

Adaptation for flight include: forelimbs are modified as feathered wings, endothermic, high metabolic rate, flexible neck, fused posterior vertebrae, and bones lightened by numerous air spaces. The skull is lightened by a reduction in bone. Presence of a horny bill that lacks teeth.

1. Order Sphenisciformes: Heavy bodied; flightless, flipper like wings for swimming ; well insulated with fat. Penguins.

2. Order Struthioniformes: Large, flightless birds ; wings with numerous fluffy plumes.

3. Order Rheiformes: Large, flightless birds; degenerate wings with soft loose plumes- Rheas.

4. Order Casuariformes: Reduced wings: coarse and hair like plumage. Cassowaries emus.

5. Order Gaviiformes: Strong, straight bill: diving adaptations include legs far back on body, bladelike tarsus, webbed feet and heavy bones. Loons.

6. Order Podicipediformes: Short wings;soft and dense plumage; feet webbed with flattened nails. Grebes.

7. Order Procellariiformes: Tubular nostrils, large nasal glands; long and narrow wings. Albatrosses, sheaswaters, petrels.

8. Order Pelecaniformes: Four toes joined in common web; nostrils rudimentary or absent; large gular sac. Pelicans, boobies, frigate-birds.

9. Order Ciconiiformes: Long neck, often folded in flight; long-legged waders. Remus.

10. Order Anseriformes: South American screamers ducks, geese and swans, the latter three groups possess a wide, flat bill and an undercoat of dense down, webbed feet

11. Order Falconiformcs: Strong, hooked beak ; large wings; raptorial fret. Vultures secretary birds, hawks, eagles, osprey, Megps

12. Order Galliformes: Short beak; short concave wings; strong feet and claws.Curassows, grouse, quail, pheasants, turkeys.

13. Order Cruiformes: Order characteristics variable and not diagnostic. Marsh birds including cranes, limpkins, rails, coots.



14. Order Charadriiformes: Order characteristics variable. Shorebirds, gulls, terns, auks.

15. Order Columbiformes: Dense leathers loosely thin skin; well developed crop. Pigeons, doves, sand grouse.

16. Order Psittaciformes: Maxilla hinged to skull; thick tongue; reversible fourth toe; usually brightly. Parrot, lanes, macaws.

17. Order Cuculiformes: Reversible fourth toe; soft, tender skin; roadrunners cuckoos.

18. Order Strigiformes: Large head with fixed eyes directed forward; raptorial foot Owls.

19. Order Caprimulgiformes: Owl-like head and plumage. but weak bill and feet: beak l‘. ith wide gape: insectivorous. Whippoorwills. other goatsuckers.

20. Order Apodiformes: Long wings; weak feet, Swifts, humming birds. .

21. Order Coraciiformes: Large head; large beak; metallic plumage; Kingfishers, todies, bee eaters, rollers.

22. Order Piciformes: Long strong beak; strong legs and feet with fourth toe permanently reversed in woodpeckers. Woodpeckers toucans, honey guides, barber.

23. Order Passeriformes: Largest avian order; 69 families of perching bids; perching foot; variable external features. Shallows, larks, crows, titmice, nuthatches and many others.

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