The substance which resists change in pH is called buffer. Stable internal environment is maintained in animals. It requires a relatively constant pH of the body fluids. A strong acid or base can destroy cell stability. Similarly, opposite charges attract each other and form


The negative log (antilog) of hydrogen ion concentration is called pH. Hydrogen and hydroxyl ions affect the chemical reactions in the cells. Therefore, the concentrations of these ions in body fluids are important. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions on, the more acidic


Acid An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (in when dissolved in water. A hydrogen atom without its electron is only a proton. Thus an acid is a proton donor:                                         HCI   H + CI One molecule of hydrogen chloride dissolves in

Applications of Genetics

Genetics has scope in following fields: Genetics as basis of biological sciences Genetics provides a foundation for biological studies. Law of inheritance helps its to understand principles of embryology, population, taxonomy. evolution and ecology. .They also provide the mechanism for the transfer of genetic


Electrolytes The substances that conduct electric current in aqueous solution are called electrolytes. Electric current decompose an electrolyte into its ions. The process of decomposition of electrolytes into its ions is called electrolysis. For example electric current is passed through an aqueous solution of

Mendelian Inheritance

The study of transfer of hereditary characters (genes) from parent to offspring is called genetics (from the Greek genno= cis birth). It is the science of genes. heredity and the variation of organisms. William Bateson in 1905 suggested NA ord “genetics” to describe the

Solutions, Acid Base And Colloidals

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called solution. The dissolved substance is called solutes. 1  substance  which dissolves a solute is called solvent. The solutions in which water acts as solvent are called aqueous solutions. For example solution of water and