The variety of living organisms in an ecosystem is called biodiversity. The exact number of species in the world is not known. The taxonomists have described about 1.4 million species. But taxonomists estimate that there are 4 to 30 million more species. Much of these species are unnoticed.
Importance of the biodiversity
There are following importance of biodiversity:
- Forests hold back flood waters and recycle CO2 and nutrients.
- Insects pollinate crops and control insect pests.
- The subterranean organisms promote soil fertility through decomposition.
- Many of these undescribed species will provide new food crops, petroleum substitutes, new fibers and pharmaceuticals. All of these functions require large healthy populations.
- Large populations promote the genetic diversity. This diversity is required for the survival of the species in the changing environmental. The genetic diversity is lost forever. The zoologists are trying to save endangered species. But they are able to save only a tiny portion of genetic pool.
Causes of destruction of biodiversity
The biodiversity is threatened all over the world. Acid rain, pollution, urban development, and agriculture are present every where. The expanding human populations destroy he habitat. It is the main threats to biological diversity. Humans are exploiting about 40% net primary production on the earth. They convert the natural areas into agricultural land. They destroy the nati‘e species. The loss of habitat destroys thousands of native plants and animals. Desertification and deforestation have also destroyed biodiversity.
Conservation of biodiversity
Following steps can conserve biediversity:
- Process of deforestation should be checked strictly.
- The process of aforestation and reforestation should be started.
- Steps should be taken to chel desertification.
- Hunting should be banned.
- National parks should be established.
- Artificial breading should be carried out for endangered species.
- Laws should be enacted tc conserve natural resources.
- Breeding sanctuaries should be established.