saadia Archive


ANIMAL SYSTEMATICS (CLASSIFICATION) Following  groups used in animal classification: 1. Monophyletic Groups: The groups showing similarities due to single ancestors are called monophyletic groups. The classification based on monophyletic groups is called monophyletic classification. This classification show evolutionary relationship.  The species should have single

Kingdoms of Life – Classification & Evolution

Kingdoms of Life 1. Kingdom classification system In 1969. Robert II. Whittaker described a system of classification. This classification forms five kingdoms. The basis of classification of Whittaker is: (i)        Cellular organization (ii)       NtIode of nutrition. Fig (a) Five kingdom system classification, (b) Recent

Molecular Approaches to Animal Systematics

Molecular Approaches to Animal Systematics Molecular approach includes study of molecules like protein, DNA, RNA of different species. Molecular techniques provide important information in recent years. These information are used for taxonomic studies. The animals have sequence of nitrogenous bases in DNA. These sequence


Nomenclature The assignment of a distinctive name to each species is called nomenclature. Common names have two problems: (a)    First, common names vary from country to country. Even they vary from region to region within a country. Some species have hundreds of different common

Taxonomic Hierarchy

A Taxonomic Hierarchy There are two basis of taxonomic hierarchy: (a)        Taxonomic hierarchy based on morphology Karl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus) gave the modern classification system. It is still used today. He believed that different species could be grouped into same categories. This grouping


CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM The study of kinds and diversity of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them is called systematics or taxonomy. The study of systematics gives the order and relationships among the organisms. This relationship arises from e evolutionary processes. These studies also