The DNA which contains DNA from two different sources is called Recombinant DNA and the technology for the formation of recombinant DNA is called DNA technology. Following materials are required for producing recombinant DNA: Gene of interest: The genes are to be cloned. Molecular
The changes in the genetic makeup of a cell are Called mutations. The mutations alter the structure of chromosomes. Sometimes, a point mutation occurs in a gamete, or in a cell. This cell gives rise to gametes. Thus the mutation is transmitted to offsprihg
The expression of gene can be controlled at different levels in the eukaryotes Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression The RNA synthesis depends on RNA polymerase enzymes. Numerous proteins called transcription factors help in the action of these enzymes. The RNA polymerase and transcription factor
The synthesis of protein at the ribosomes form mRNA is called translation. Role of tr.n:;, in transcription Transfer RNA (tRNA) plays an important role in translation. It reads codes on the mRNA and brings different amino acids. Thus a polypeptide chain is formed. The
A sequence of bases in DNA that .codes for the synthesis of One polypeptide is called gene. The genes must transmit their information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Therefore, protein synthesis occurs in cytoplasm. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from DNA is
Following steps take place in the replication of DNA in Eukaryotes: Origin of replication The replication of a DNA molecule begins at special sites called origins of replication. The eukaryotic DNA contains thousand of such replication origins. A rotein initiates DNA replication. It recognizes
DNA: THE GENETIC MATERIAL The biologists of twentieth century realized that the genetic material must have certain characteristics. These charabteristics can explain the properties of life: 1: First, the genetic material must be able to code for the sequence of amino acids in proteins.
Multiple Choice Questions MCQs Four options are given at the end of each statement. You should encircle one option from them. Which of the followings is linker protein? (a) H1 (b) H2A, (c) I-12B (d) H3 Which of the following proteins is absent is
Write note on eukaryotic chromosomes. Write note on sex chromosomes and autosomes. Discuss linkage relationships. Write note crossing over. Write note on point mutation Discuss aneuploidy and polyploidy. Discuss changes in the structure of chromosome.
TERMS DEFINITIONS Cell cycle The highly dispersed state of chromosomes is called chromatin. Mitosis The highly folded form during division of cell is called Nucleosothe Four types of Histone protein form a core particle called nucleosome. Heterochromatic Heterochromatic region are inactive portions of Euchromatic