abida Archive

DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS OF ECOLOGYLL COMUNITIES

  TERMS   DEFINITIONS Community Community is composed of all populations living in an area. Dominant specie Species    that   determine    community     characteristics    are called dominant species. Succession The process of change a community in a predictable ways is called succession. Ecological niche All  

POLLUTION

Any detrimental change in an ecosystem is called pollution. Human activities cause most kinds of pollution. There is a large human population. Their demands for good sand services are increasing. It increases pollution problems. Water population There are many forms of water pollution. Industries

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

The human population is increasing ip the last few. hundred years. Humans are sing resources to provide need and wants for the growing population. But humans have lost the sense that they are also part of world. ecosystem. They are wasting world resources. It

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

Terrestrial ecosystems can be divided into following main types: Temperate deciduous forest Coniferous alpine and boreal forests Tropical rain forests Grassland ecosystem Desert ecosystem Tundra ecosystem TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTS 1, Location: Temperate moist conditions are present in Neelam valley and Shogran in Pakistan. These

ESTUARIES (ECOSYSTEM)

The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean is called an estuary. It is composed of intertidal salt marshes. Salinity varies within estuaries from fresh water to ocean. It varies on a daily cycle with the rise and fall ,of

MARINE ECOSYSTEM

Marine ecosystems are found in the oceans. Marine environments are characterized by an average salt concentration of 3%. Oceans cover nearly three fourths of surface df the earth. There is following importance of the marine ecosystem: Most of the rainfall on.the earth takes place

Stream and Rivers

The fresh water bodies in which water moves continuously in one direction are called streams and rivers. The head water of a stream is cold and clear. It carries little sediment and a few mineral nutrients. The channel is narrow there. A fa -t

FRESH WATER LAKES AND PONDS

Fresh water lakes have variety of size, depth, and nutrient content. The have distinct life zones and temperature stratification. The distribution of life in lakes depends on light, nutrients and place for attachment. Thus different life zones are formed in the lake and ponds

ECOSYSTEMS OF THE EARTH

There are two types of ecosystems: 1. Aquatic or Hydrospheric ecosystem: It is system in which living components exchange material and transfer energy within water. Aquatic environment is classified into fresh water and marine (salty) water. (a)   Salt-water ocean and Sea are the largest

COMMUNITIES AND ECOSYSTEM

COMMUNITIES Community is composed of all populations living in an area. Communities are not random mixtures of species. They have a unique organization. Most communities have certain important members. These members determine the characteristics of community. For example, a stream community has a large