Genetics is divided into two parts: Classical and Mendelian genetics.
(a) Classical Genetics
The techniques and methodologies of genetics are called classical genetics. This genetics give rise to molecular biology. The discovery of the genetic codes and tools of cloning like restriction enzymes open many new areas of genetics. Classical genetic includes Billowing branches of genetics:
I. Behavioral genetics: The study of the influence of varying genetics on animal behavior is called behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics studies the effects of human disorders as well as its causes.
- Clinical genetics: It includes the training of geneticists to diagnose. treat, and counsel patients with genetic disorders or syndromes.
- Molecular genetics: Molecular genetics focuses on the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. Molecular genetics employ’s the methods of both classical genetics (such as
- hybridization) and molecular biology.
- Population, quantitative and ecological genetics: Population, quantitative and ecological genetics are all sub fields of classical genetics.
- Genomics: The study of large-scale genetic patterns across the genome is genomics.
- Genetic engineering: The manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering. It is also a sub field of classical genetic.
(b) Mendelian inheritance
(Mendelian genetics or Mendel ism)
The genetics which governs the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent to their children is called Mendelian inheritance. This genetics was initially derived from the work of Gregor Mendel published in 1865 and 1866. This work was “rediscovered” in 1900. Thomas Hunt Morgan integrated the chromosome theory of inheritance. This theory became the core of classical genetics.