Genetics has scope in following fields:
- Genetics as basis of biological sciences
Genetics provides a foundation for biological studies. Law of inheritance helps its to understand principles of embryology, population, taxonomy. evolution and ecology. .They also provide the mechanism for the transfer of genetic characters from parents to offspring. Genetics also has close. relationship with the study of evolution. Evolutionary principles cannot be studied without genetics. Similarly the understanding of ecological adaptations required the stud) of genetics. Biotechnology has direct link )vith genetics. Thus genetics has great importance in biological sciences.
- Role of genetics in food production
–Idle scientists use the principles of the genetics. It has improved the existing varieties or the crops and livestock like wheat, rice, corn. chicken and sheep. New varieties of wheat and corn are developed with the help of genetics. These varietal; give high yields. Many pest resistant varieties of crops are developed. Transgenic plants can produced with the help of genetics. –F he pi tits having foreign DNA in their cells are called transgenic plants. Gee dies has also helped to improve the production of milk and ‘neat. Many new verities„pf cattle, sheep and chicken are produced lwf cross breeding. Thus genetics has played very important role in food production.
- Role of genetics in diseases control
Many hereditary diseases are discovered with the help of principles of genetics. Some of these diseases are hemophilia, thallasemia. arthritis, colour blindness, cancer, sickle cell anemia and pheny Iketonuria. Most of these diseases are lethal and incurable. Efforts have been made to cure these diseases by gene therapy. Gene therapy is done ss di the help of genetic principles. Some diseases arc completely incurable. Therefore, genetics provides genetic counseling before marriage. These diseases are more common in certain families. Genetic counseling provides information that how these diseases can be prevented by cross marriages.
- Role of genetics in conservation of wild life Wild life has great ecological significance for human. Extinction of many species is upsetting the ecological balance. Therefore, differentgovernments have launched wild life conservation programmes. Conservation of wild life is impossible without genetic conservation. Genetic conservation means conservation of variety of genes in the encingered species. Genetic laws are being applied for the genetic conse.’.qtion programmes.
- Applicatryt (genetics in genetic engineering
Manipulation of gtr :or the benefits of humanity is called
genetic engineering. G .ucic engineering has very close link with the genetics. Some biol •ists believe that genetic engineering is the branch of genetics. Othtrs doe not agree with it. They include classic genetic and Mendlain genetic in the subject of genetics. Any how, the principles of genetic engineering are directly derived from genetics. Genetic engineering has following applications:
(a) Development of transgenic crops
(b) Gene therapy
(e) Improvement in food production (d) Control of genetic diseases
- Biotechnology and genetics
Principles of genetic are also used in biotechnology. Genes are located with the help of gene mapping. Gene mapping is done with the help of genetics. The genes of interest are cut and transferred through plasm ids into bacteria. These bacteria produce desired products. Different products like human insulin. growth hormone. vaccines are produced with the help of biotechnolog).
- Behavioral genetics
Behavioural genetics studies the influence of varying genetics on
an behavidr. Beim ioral genetics studies the elThets of human
disorders as well as its causes. Behavior& genetics has solved some very imeresting questions about the evolution of various behaviors. For example. guppies and mcerkats have similar adaptations to save themselves from predator. Research has revealed that their common behavour has some link the common genes.
- Clinical genetics
Physicians are trained as Geneticists diagnose. They treat, and counsel patients with genetic disorders or syndromes. These doctors are typically trained in a genetics residency or fellowship.
- Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics builds upon the foundation of classical genetics. It focuses on the structure and function of genes at a molecular level.
Molecular genetics employs the methods of both classical genetics (such as hybridization) and molecular biology. It is so-called to differentiate it from other sub fields of genetics such as ecological genetics and population genetics. An important area within Molecular genetics is the use of molecular–information to determine the patterns of descent, and therefore the correct scientific classification of organisms. This is called molecular systematics.
- Population, quantitative and ecologicaligenetics
Population, quantitative and ecological genetics are all very closely related subfields of classical genetics. The foundational discipline of population genetics is the study of distribution and change in allele frequencies of genes. These changes occur under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and migration.
A more recent development is the rise of genomics. It attempts the study of large-scale genetic patterns across the genorne for a given species. Genomics depends on the mailability of whole genuine sequences and computer tools for analysis of large set of data.