ANGIOSPERMIC FAMILIES

Scheme of Description of families

Technical terms of Flowers

  1. Bracteate: Bract is small leaf in axils of which flower arises. If bract present it is called bracteate, if absent it is called ebracteate

  2. Pedicillate: Pedicel is present

  3. Sessile: Pedicel absent

  4. Bracteate: Bract is present

  5. Ebracteate: Bract is absent

  6. Monosexual : When one of stamen or carpel is present.

  7. Bisexual: When both stamen and carpel are present.

  8. Complete: Calyx, corolla both present.

  9. Incomplete: One of the calyx or corolla is absent.

  10. Hermaphrodite: Both stamen and carpels are present.

  1. Actinomorphic: When a flower can be cut into two equal halves by more than one plane, it is called actinomorphic flower.

  2. Zygomorphic: When a flower can be cut into two equal halves by only one plane, it is called zygomorphic flower.

  3. Regular: When actinomorphic symmetry.

  4. Irregular: When zygomorphic symmetry.

  5. Hypogynous: In this case, the thalamus (upper part of pedicel) is convex. The carpel attach at the tip. The stamen, sepals are inserted below the gyneoecium on the side. So ovary is superior.

  6. Perigynous: In this case, the thalamus is flattened. Ovary is present in the centre. The stamens, sepals. petals are inserted on the rim of the disc around the gyncoecium. So ovary is superior.

Calyx

I. Gamosepalous: Sepal fused

  1. Polysepalous: Sepal free

  2. Persistant sepals: If sepals do not fall after the opening of • flower, they are called persistant sepals.

Corolla

  1. Gamopetalous: Petal fused

2. Polypetalous: Petal flee

Perianth

When sepals and petals cannot differentiated from each other, then term perianth is used both of these.

Stamen

  1. Polyandrous: Stamens free •

  2. Epipetalous stamen: Stamens are attached with the petals

  3. Adelphous: Stamens are fused by their filaments

  4. Monoadelphous: The filament of stamens fused to form single group.

  5. Basifixed: Stamen attached at the base of anther


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  6. Versatile: Filament at in the back of anther Fherefore,
    anther can swing on filament

Carpel

  1. Apocarpous: Carpel free

  2. Synearpous: Carpel fused

  3. Monocarpillary: Single carpel

  4. Polycarpillary: Many camels

  5. Simple pistil: In this case. the carpels are not fused.

  6. Compound pistil: In this case, one or more camels are fused.

  7. Unilocular ovary: In this case. the ovary has single chamber.

Placentation

The attachment of ovule in the ovary is called placentation. There are different types of placentation:

  1. Basal: In this case, the ovule is attached at the base of ovary.

  2. Axile: In the case there is a central axil (rod) inside the ovary. The ovule attach on this axil

  3. Marginal: In this case the ovules are attached on the inner wall of the ovary.

Diagnostic characters

  1. Habit: Annual, Biennial or perennial; Herbs, shrubs, vines, or tree.
  2. Roots: Tap root or adventitious roots; fibrous or tuberous root

  3. Stem: Herbaceous or %soody, spiny or without spines; Cylindrical; Aerial. climbing or mderground stem (rhizome. corm, bulb or tuber).

  4. Leaves: Sessile or petiolate; Leavy phyllotaxis (alternate or opposite); simple or compound: Stipu .tte or exstipulate: parallel or reticulate venation.

  5. Inflorescence: Racemose or cymose, ‘type of racemose of c ‘nose)

  6. Honer: Sessile or pedicillate; bracteate or ebracteatc: actinomcrphic bi zygomorphic: Regular or irregular: complete or incomplete; unisexual or hermaphrodite: bypogynous. perigynous or epigynous:

  7. Calyx: Number of sepals: free or fused; imbricate: green or petaloid

  8. Corolla: Number of petals; Free or fused (with shape): imbricate: colour
  9. Stamens: Number of stamens: adelphous or free: attachment of anther on filament.

  10. Carpel: Monocarpillary or Polycarpillary; Simple or compound ovary: apocarpous or syncarpous: type or placentation.

  11.  Fruits: Type of fruit.
  12.   12. Seed: Endospermic or non-endosperm ic seed.

 

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