An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (in when dissolved in water. A hydrogen atom without its electron is only a proton. Thus an acid is a proton donor:

                                        HCI   H + CI

One molecule of hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to produce hydrochloric acid. It dissociates into one hydrogen ion and one chloride ion.

Base (or alkali)

A substance that releases hydroxyl ions (011) when dissolved in water is called base. One molecule of sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. It produces one sodium ion and one hydroxyl ion. When a base dissolves in water, it removes free protons (I-1) from the water. Therefore, it is a proton acceptor.

NaOH___________ P Na + + Off




The acids and bases can neutralize one another to form a salt and water. The salts are found in all cells. They exist in their ionized forms. Example of salt are sodium chloride etc.

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